William Caxton and the art of printing.
The revolution which had been effected by war, by changes of dynasties, by the partial admission of the commons to a voice in legislation, was succeeded by a still mightier influence than any of these could exert. A power had arisen before which all others were to give place. Slowly but surely the growth of intelligence and the increase of knowledge contributed to human freedom, and to that eager desire for liberty which inevitably followed when people had learned to think for themselves and to discard the fetters imposed by those who, while they alone possessed the means of intellectual culture, strove to fetter the consciences and control the destinies of men. Continue reading
Italian young man in renaissance costume 1470, 15th century.
Gallery: “Sheets for costume design: historical and folk costumes. Published by Franz Lipperheide, 1876-1887.
Headdresses 15th century. The Reticulated Headdress (Latin, Reticulum = a net).
At the hall door take off thy hood and gloves. Observe in Curtseie to take A rule of decent kind, Bend not thy body too far forth, Nor backe thy leg behind.
Curtesy came from Heaven when Gabriel greeted Our Lady. All virtues are included in it.
English and French burgundy fashion in the 15th Century.
Top row left to right: English fashion in 1400. French citizens clothes in 1470.
Bottom row left to right: English fashion in the first third of the 15th Century. Right: King Henry VII. The Duke of Suffolk. King Henry VI. The duchess of Suffolk in court dresses.
On the history of costumes. Münchener Bilderbogen. Edited by Braun and Schneider 1860.
French lady’s, chamber maid costume 1460. Reign of Charles VII.
“Modes et Costumes Historiques“. Drawing by Xavier Willemin. Edited and steel engraving by Hippolyte Louis Emile and Polidor Jean Charles Pauquet. Published by Cassell, Petter & Galpin London, 1864
German fashion in the 15th century.
Upper half of the image on the left: Lower Rhine Costume (1400).
Right: Philip of Ingelheim (1431), Martin of Seinsheim (1434 Gentlewoman in the costume from the year 1410.
Lower half of the image on the left: Woman costume mid 1400s. Citizens of the city of Ravensburg 1429. Knight of Stettenberg 1428. Right: Fashion from the years around 1450.
Gallery: “On the history of costumes”. Münchener Bilderbogen (Munich pictures sheets). Published by Braun & Schneider, Munich c.1858 -1898s.
Men’s dress at the beginning of the fifteenth century was in all essentials similar to that which they had worn at the end of the previous century, but the character of the separate items had undergone considerable change owing to incongruous combinations and degenerations in shape.
An Austrian chronicler of this period says: ” Every one dressed as he pleased. Some wore coats made of two kinds of material. Some had the left sleeve much wider than the right — wider even than the length of the whole coat — while others wore sleeves of equal width.
Some again embroidered the left sleeve in various ways, with ribbons of all colors or with silver bugles threaded on silk strings. Some wore on the breast a kerchief of various colors embroidered with letters in silver and silk. Still others wore pictures on the left breast. Some had their clothes made so long that they could not dress or undress without assistance, or without undoing a multitude of small buttons dispersed all over the sleeve, the breast, and the abdomen.
Medieval room interior, 15th century.
The Lady of Tournament delivering the Price.
DURING the progress of the Tournament, the scaffolds surrounding the field were crowded with ladies, who encouraged the combatants by their smiles. They not unfrequently gave to some favoured knight a glove or a handkerchief, which he was to defend against the field. To a lady also was reserved the office of delivering the prize to the victor in the Tournament each day. Our engraving representing this ceremony, forms the last of the series of drawings by King Rene. In the Traite des Tournois, we have especial directions relating to this part of the day’s amusement. When the “jugesdiseurs,” or umpires, had given their judgment, the king of arms announced it to the Knight who had been decided the victor in the day’s contest, and, attended by the heralds and poursuivants, conducted him to the Lady of the Tournament. Continue reading