Fashion under the French Revolution & Directoire Period 1789 to 1802.
Table of content.
1789 Fashion in Paris before the taking of the Bastille – Mademoiselle Berthin – 1791 Fashion under the French Revolution – 1794 Fashion reverts to the Greek and Roman period – Disappearance of Louis XVI costumes – Paleness in vogue – Beauties à la Psyche – Varieties of hair-dressing at the commencement of the Directoire – Perruques came into fashion – The painter David, the revolutionary painter apostate – Debate on reformation costume – The Cothurn – The “Merveilleuses” – Greek robes – Roman dresses – Copé, the noted shoemaker
Paul Barras 1755-1829. Member of the Executive Board.
Louis-Lazare Hoche 1768-1797. French Revolution History.
Louis-Lazare Hoche was a French general of the Revolutionary who was known for his level-headed actions in the suppression of the revolt in the Vendée in 1795 as the “pacificateur de la Vendée”. Hoche was the son of a former soldier and garde-chenil du roi (presumably. Overseer of the royal hunting dogs). After the early death of his mother, he was raised by an aunt who also paid him an education. A priest from Saint-Germain-en-Laye fell on his scholastic zeal and intelligence; he gave him lessons in Latin and aroused his interest in the ancient writers and philosophers. Hoche was 15 years old stable boy in the écuries de Versailles (royal. Stables) and entered the regiment of the Gardes Françaises-16-one. Its origin from very humble background was no obstacle for an amazing career in the revolutionary army. With 24 years (according to the Revolutionary calendar), he was already in the rank of general. Hoche is said to have survived two duels and two attacks. Hoche was 1797 – after centuries of feudal rule – the first civil government chief of the left of the Rhine parts of the country. His name is inscribed on the Arc de Triomphe in Paris in the third column. One of the great, leading to the Arc de Triomphe Paris streets, the Avenue Hoche.
Marquis de Lafayette 1757-1834. Aristocrat and military officer.
Marie-Joseph-Paul-Yves-Roch-Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de La Fayette or Lafayette was a French general and politician. He took part on the side of the colonists on the American Revolutionary War and played an important role in the French Revolution. La Fayette came from a noble family in Chavaniac. His father died in 1770 at the Battle of Minden (Seven Years War). After her mother’s death in 1770 he was already 13 years old orphan, but had in the following because of the large fortune of his family no material restrictions and was able to pursue his inclinations. After the declaration of independence of the British colonies La Fayette went with a self-recruited volunteer force in 1777 to America. There he fought for American independence and its affiliates with the Enlightenment ideals of equality, freedom and justice. When he returned to France, the people gave him a triumphant welcome and Louis XVI. received him into the Assembly of Notables. Even in the United States La Fayette was (written Lafayette) celebrated as a great war hero. Under La Fayette’s influence adopted Louis XVI. the Edict of 1787 (tolerance), which was especially good to the Huguenots. On 11 July 1789 he presented the Draft of the Declaration of Human Rights, which he had developed with the assistance of Thomas Jefferson. La Fayette was taken responsibility for ensuring that the king could try to escape on June 20, 1791. Three days after the second anniversary of the storming of the Bastille he had the open fire on an angry crowd. This massacre on the Champ de Mars with dozens dead cost him much of his popularity. La Fayette died on 20 May 1834 at the age of 76 years in Paris and was buried in the cemetery Cimetière de Picpus. His name is inscribed on the Arc de Triomphe in Paris in the third column.
French army of 1790. Swiss Guard, French Guard, Grenadier.
Armee Francaise de 1790. Garde Suisse, Garde Francaise, Grenadier.
After a drawing by F. Bastin. From a series: Armee Francaise 1804 a 1815. Paris Impr. Jules Rigo et Cie.
Jean Paul Marat 1743-1793. Portrait French Revolution History.
Jean Paul Marat was a physician, naturalist and author of scientific and political writings. During the French Revolution, he wrote the Ami du Peuple, a newspaper that followed the practices of the counter-revolution with sharp polemics. He was on the side of the mountain party deputy in the National Convention and for a period President of the Club of the Jacobins. He was blamed for the September Massacres in particular by the propaganda of his political opponents. By the assassination by Charlotte Corday He became the “martyrs of the revolution”.
The Assassination of Marat (13th July, 1793).
Marat was a native of Switzerland, who settled in Paris first as a horse-doctor; after which he practiced as a surgeon, and obtained some little notoriety for scientific researches. When the revolution broke out, he abandoned his profession, and became the editor of a journal called The People’s Friend, in which the king, the nobles, the clergy, and the old government met with unmeasured abuse.
In the new constitution he was one of the Paris Municipality, and president of the Committee of the Commune. He was afterwards the Paris deputy in the National Convention. A young Norman girl, 25 years of age, of poor but noble parentage, Charlotte de Corday by name, looking upon Marat as the head and chief of the Red Republicans, resolved to get rid of him. She was a religious enthusiast; and “Judith” was her model, whom “the Lord gifted with a special beauty for the deliverance of Israel.” Charlotte, living with her aunt at Caen [Car’n], conceived a romantic attachment to Madame Roland and the Girondists; and when several of them, who escaped the proscription of May, sought refuge in Caen, she called upon them to converse with them on her favourite theme.
On the 9th of July, she left her aunt’s house, and, on arriving at Paris, took an apartment close by the house where Marat was dwelling. Marat was ill at the time, and confined to the house. Charlotte requested by letter an interview, and called at half-past seven o’clock on the evening of the 13th. Marat was in a bath, but allowed the beautiful young girl to enter the room.
A coarse covering was thrown across the bath, and the two entered into conversation. The subject was the Girondists, who had taken refuge in Caen [Car’n]. “Before the week is out,” said Marat, “not one of them shall have escaped the guillotine.” Scarcely had he uttered these words, when the young girl drew a knife from her kerchief, and plunged it to the hilt in Marat’s heart. He gave one loud expiring cry, and sank back dead in the bath.
Some of the household entered; one felled the murderess to the ground with a chair, another trampled her under foot. A crowd gathered round the house; a commissary of police entered, and took the assassin to the Abbaye, the nearest prison. Two days afterwards, she was sent to the guillotine, and died saying, “One man have I slain to save a hundred thousand.” Her beauty was extraordinary, and gave a lively interest to her sanguinary but heroic conduct. Marat was almost deified for this assassination.* He was looked on as the Republican martyr. A splendid funeral was accorded him, in which every section joined; and a crowd of people, almost without number, followed in the train.
Four women bore the bath in which he had been murdered. Another carried on a pike his blood-stained shirt. Then followed eight bearers with the wooden bedstead on which he had been wont to sleep; and the corpse was laid on the bed, with its head exposed to view. Salvos of artillery were fired every few minutes. The cortege traversed all the principal streets, and rested at last at the Pantheon, where the remains were interred among the “heroes of the nation;” but ere long the whole feeling of the people was completely changed, and the mouldering idol was disinterred, and indignantly removed from this national mausoleum.
In appearance, Marat was ill- shaped, low of stature, and so ugly that he was the “scarecrow of children.” Though menacing all, and slaying without mercy, he was a desperate coward, and lived in daily dread of being assassinated. Even Danton and Robespierre were ashamed of being seen with him.
Like Masaniello, and others suddenly exalted to uncontrolled power, this hideous demagogue was intoxicated by success, and thought to gain notoriety by out-Heroding Herod. Of the three names of worst pre-eminence in the Reign of Terror, though Robespierre is generally the most execrated, Carrier and Marat were by far the most detestable.
Charlotte of Corday was doubtless influenced by patriotic feeling as well as private resentment in her attack upon Marat. The attempt of Staps on the life of Napoleon I. was actuated by a similar mistaken sense of public duty; as was that of Louvet, the assassin of the duc de Berri, in the reign of Louis XVIII.; of Alibaud on Louis-Philippe; of Orsini on Napoleon III.; and of many others.
Charlotte Corday was rather tall, but admirably proportioned, with a figure full of grace and dignity. Her hands, arms, and shoulders, were models of beauty. An expression of gentleness and serenity characterised her fair oval countenance and regular features. Her open forehead, dark well-arched eyebrows, and eyes of a deep grey colour, added to her grave and meditative appearance. Her nose was straight and well formed; her mouth serious, but very beautiful. Like most of the Norman women, her complexion was transparent ; and thick brown hair fell in curls round her neck and shoulders. Some few years after her death, an old man was asked if she really were so yery beautiful. „Aye,” replied the old man,” there are none such now.”
- The anniversary of the death of Marat was a national fete day to the end of the Revolution. In such In such processions twelve young ladies were appointed to carry urns, supposed to contain the tears of France. It was death to refuse this office.
Source: THE POLITICAL, SOCIAL, AND LITERARY HISTORY OF FRANCE: BROUGHT DOWN TO THE MIDDLE OF THE YEAR 1874. THE REV. DR. COBHAM BREWER.
Louis XIV. , Louis XV. , Louis XVI., Baroque, Rococo, Directoire, French Revolution, Regency, Empire, Restoration or Romanticism fashion era. German Biedermeier.
- The French Fashion History.
- Reign of Louis XIV. 1643 to 1715
- The Reign of Louis XV. 1715 to 1774.
- Reign of Louis XVI. 1780 to 1789.
- The French Republic 1789 to 1802.
- Timeline of the French Revolution 1789 – 1799.
- Les Modes sous la revolution 1792-1799 by Paul Louis Victor de Giafferri.
- Reign of Napoleon I. 1804 to 1814. France empire.
- Reigns of Louis XVIII. and Charles X. 1815 to 1830. Restoration, Romanticism
- Fashion in the Reign of Philippe. 1830 to 1848. Victorian era. Romanticism fashion.
- The Second Republic. 1848 -1851. Victorian era. “Second Rococo”.
- The use of the Corset in the reign of Louis XVI.
- Ladies hat styles from 1776-1790 by Rose Bertin.
- Fashion under the French revolution 1789 to 1802.
- Paris fashion 1793 to 1795. French revolution.
- The Execution of the King Louis XVI.
- The Execution of Marie-Antoinette.
- The Incroyables and Muscadins. The French directory dandies.
- Les Incroyables et Merveilleuses. “The Directoire Style” between 1795–1804.
- Nymphs and Merveilleuses. By Octave Uzanne.
- Fashion in Paris after the Revolution. By Octave Uzanne. 1796-1800.
- Portraits by people during the French Revolution
- The Gallery of Fashion. by Nikolaus von Heideloff, London.
- Comparison of the French and English modes. 1808 to 1815
- The Salon of Madame Récamier during the French Revolution.
- The Salons of Paris before the French Revolution.
- Caraco a´la francaise in 1786.
- The Evolution of Modern Feminine Fashion 1786.
- Fashion in Paris and London, 1780 to 1788.
- Historic hairstyles from Ancient times to the Empire.
The mysterious conversations. France Directory costumes c. 1790.
Costumes of a legislator. The French people’s representatives of the Directorate.
Costumes of a legislator, designed by Jacques-Louis David 1748-1825, for: Projet de costume civique – Habit de législateur. Le représentant du peuple François en function. Engraver Vivant Denon 1747-1825.
Louis XVI fashion 1790 – 1792. French Revolution costumes.
- 453. All blue male costume with shoulder sash in red, white and blue, 1790.
- 454. Dark blue masculine woman’s dress with red lapels and cravat, hat with cockade and ostrich Feathers, 1790.
- 455. White dress, jacket laced in front; in the hand, a yo-yo, 1791.
- 456. Grey-powdered hair with wreath of roses, red ribbon round neck, à la guillotine, 1791.
- 457. Grey-powdered hair, brown coat with high red collar, yellow knee-breeches, blue embroidered waistcoat, 1791.
- 458. Grey-powdered curled hair, small frilled hat, dress with stripes at hem, fichu, 1792.
- 459. Grey-powdered hair, straw hat with ribbon under chin, fichu and scarf, 1792.
« Histoire du costume » par Henry Harald Hansen. Dessins de Ebbe Susen, Mogens Bryder et Kaj Norregaard. Traduit du Danois par Jaqueline Puissant. Flammarion, Paris, 1954.
German fashion in the 18th century. The Georgian Era.
Top row left to right: women’s fashion in 1793. Chur Saxon field postmaster. Princely Hessian postilion. Right: Costumes in 1788. Bottom row left to right: Fashion of 1791 and 1792. Right: German fashion of 1789 and 1790. (The fashion of women based on the Dutch Spanish baroque period with a high hat, and Bonnets in the French style of Charlotte Corday – at upper row. The men wear the tricorne and Rhinegraves pants for mid-length jacket)
On the history of costumes. Münchener Bilderbogen. Edited by Braun and Schneider 1860.