Madame de Maintenon 1635-1719. French Baroque period.
Françoise d’Aubigné, marquise de Maintenon, briefly called Madame de Maintenon was the last mistress and in morganatic marriage, the second wife of Louis XIV of France.
After the death of his wife, Queen Maria Theresa of Austria in October 1683, Louis XIV went to the Maintenon secretly a left-handed marriage (The right hand is the oath hand, the hand of the marriage alliance. The left-handed marriage granted the wife in the aristocratic society not full marriage rights, but was merely a special form of concubinage. Not a full legally binding marriage, morganatic marriage, not befitting). Until his death, he lived with her and visited her every day in their rooms. The unclear relationship to the outside of the two and the fact that she was a little older than him, led to some talk on the court and in Europe.
In 1685 founded Madame de Maintenon in the town of Saint-Cyr-l’École (Arrondissement Versailles) a boarding school, Maison royale de Saint-Louis, for 300 daughters of impoverished noblemen – the Maison Royale de Saint-Louis. There she retired after the death of the king in 1715, without ever having to leave the place again. The tomb of Madame de Maintenon lies in the Chapel.
Gallerie: „Album de coiffures histories“ by E. Nissy. Published 1890 by Albert Brunet.
Baroque coiffure of Elisabeth de France.
Élisabeth de Bourbon (Spanish Isabel de Borbón y Médicis; 1602-1644) was a princess of France and the first woman of the Hapsburg Philip IV 1621-1644 Queen of Spain and 1621 to 1640 queen of Portugal. Elizabeth was the eldest daughter of Henry IV. Of France and his second wife, Maria de ‘Medici. As the oldest princess, she received the traditional honorary title Madame Royale at court. In her new home Élisabeth was designated the Spanish form of her name, Isabel,. Her brother Louis XIII. should be see never again. She is considered as great patron of the Spanish literature in its golden age.
From the book: “Album de coiffures histories“ by E. Nissy. Published 1890 by Albert Brunet.
Gallery of “Album de coiffures histories“
Coiffure Louis XIV. Louise Bénédicte de Bourbon-Condé, Duchesse du Maine 1676-1753.
French Ancien Régime, Rococo era. „Album de coiffures histories“ by E. Nissy. Published 1890 by Albert Brunet.
Coiffure Henri IV.
Historic French renaissance hairstyles. Marie de’ Medici, Queen of France 1575-1642.
Thirty Years War weapons, armament 1600-1650.
Arming in the 30 year war. Helmet, gloves and a musketeer rifle. The musket is shown in detail.
17th century fashion.. Noblewoman in 1650.
Baroque era. German citizen in 1580.
Late Renaissance, early baroque era.
France in 1786, the evolution of modern feminine fashion.
Paris à l’Anglaise.
Table of content
Rose Bertin, the Court dressmaker – Fashions in Paris à l’Anglaise – Gauze handkerchiefs round the neck – Hair-dressing – Excessive use of feathers in the hair – At Versailles a forest of feathers – Extravagant cost of feathers for hats
“Fashion is the great governor of this world. It presides not only in matters of dress and amusement, but in law, physic, politics, religion, and all other things of the gravest kind. Indeed, the wisest of men would be puzzled to give any better reason why particular
forms in all these have been at certain times universally received,and at other times universally rejected, than that they were in or out of fashion.”