Category Archives: Carolingian

Frankish Merovingian costume history 4th and 5th century






Clotilde Frankish queen. Merovingian costume history 5th century.

Saint Clotilde woman of King Clovis I.

Frankish Merovingian costume history 4th and 5th century.

Costume of the Early Franks.

Costume Merovingian Frankish warrior 4th century.

Fig. 99. Frankish warrior 4th century

Our earliest knowledge of the Franks after their settlement in Gaul is gained from the historian Sidonius Apollinaris (430-488). He describes them as “monsters,” and “from the top of their red skulls descends their hair, knotted on the front and shaved in the nape of the neck. Their chins are shaven, and instead of a beard they have locks of hair arranged with the comb” (moustaches) (see Fig. 99). He relates that they had large strong limbs, and wore a tight-fitting tunica to the knee, with a wide girdle round their “lean stomachs.” To hurl their two-edged axes, turn their shields round and round, and to bear down the enemy before their spears was child’s play to them.

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Middle Ages Shoes Fashion 10th to 15th century


Middle Ages Shoes Fashion 10th to 15th century. Medieval costumes. Carolingian dresses

Shoes 10th to 15th century

Middle Ages Shoes Fashion 10th to 15th century.  French Fashion History.

L’HISTOIRE DU COSTUME FÉMININ FRANÇAIS. CHAUSSURES. MOYEN-AGE. – Planche 11.

  1. Patin retenu par des courroies, et chaussure basse fin du XIe siecle, 
  2. Poulaine à pointe flexible attachée par des chaînettes. La corne dite pigasse est terminée par un grelot ou une fleur (1420). 
  3. Chaussure a la poulaine reposant sur patin de bois retenu par une bride brodée (1422). 
  4. Soulier du frère de saint Louis en 1245. Tissu bleu brodé de rosettes d’or. 
  5. Botte avec poulaine et patin, dame de la noblesse (1420). 
  6. Chaussure du Xe siècle, entourée d’un ruban, ornée d’orfèvrerie. 
  7. Ordre de la Jarretière (1349). Edouard III et comtesse de Salisbury. 
  8. Chausse de drap, Femme de Henry de Mez (1265), recouverte de galon de cuir, 
  9. Chausse de drap bleu recouverte de galons de cuir (XI- siècle), 
  10. Jupe drapée sur le côté (1322), ornée de langues de chat. 
  11. ]upe d’Alix de Norsy (1300), double jupe drapée doublée d’hermine. 
  12. Sceptre de Charlemagne. 
  13. Jupe formant tunique, ornée de galons brodés (1149). 
  14. Bannière des Maîtres Cordonniers, bleu-jaune.

Gallery: The Modes of the Middle Ages. The History of Female French Costume by Paul Louis Victor de Giafferri.

Middle Age dresses 10th to 15th century.






Middle Age dresses 10th to 15th century. French Medieval Fashion and Clothes.

Costumes 10th to 15th century

Middle Age dresses 10th to 15th century.

L’HISTOIRE DU COSTUME FÉMININ FRANÇAIS. ROBES. MOYEN-AGE. – Planche 2.

  1. Cotte hardie, Th. de Rousmer (1264). Larges emmanchures, Perse bleu foncé, boutons jaunes. 
  2. Princesse (1000), robe verte, bordée d’un galon de passementerie or, la sous-jupe et la manche ajustée en brocart rouge ainsi que la coiffure également bordée d’un galon or, voile blanc. 
  3. Dame noble (1100), robe rayée vert et rouge, ceinture d’or, sous-jupe violet avec motifs noirs. Voile châtaigne et pierreries. 
  4. Houppelande avec chaperon (1372). Rouge, doublure gris perle. Robe bleue. 
  5. Manteau d’Agnès de Méranie, gris doublé d’hermine, attache en cuir, robe violette (1223). 
  6. Femme élégante sous Charles VIII (1483), franges de poil de chèvre comme garniture. Robe vert foncé. 
  7. Pelicon, manteau d’après-midi Michelle Papelart, bourgeoise de Châlons (1258), teinte marron. 
  8. Renaud de Saint – Vincent (1260). Manteau à panneau devant. Capulet bleu, manteau gris. 
  9. Noble dame sous Charlemagne (768). Robe violet clair, ceinture de joaillerie, broderies de couleur. Bordure de fourrure au décolleté et aux manches. 
  10. Robe (1142), rose, broderie or, en dessous chemise blanche. 
  11. Barmière armoiriée de la Communauté des marchands tisserands de la Ville de Paris fond bleu cobalt, navette blanche et noire.

Gallery: The Modes of the Middle Ages. The History of Female French Costume by Paul Louis Victor de Giafferri.

The German Royal Costume. Coronation Robes of the German Emperors

Medieval Coronation Robes. The German Royal Costume.

German Royal Costume. 11th century clothing. Medieval emperor coronation robes. Middle ages costume.

Fig.1. German Royal Costume

The robes with which the German kings were invested at their coronation in Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle), and from 1711 onward in Frankfort-on-the-Main, and which, together with crown, sceptre, and orb, etc., composed the Imperial regalia (Fig. 1.), are as follows:

The Dalmatica

(1) The dalmatica (Fig. 2.), a magnificent under-garment of violet colored material, closed all round and reaching to the knees. The neck has a border of braid, and can be made lower by means of a gold cord that passes round it. The sleeves are long, and cut very narrow in front; they are embroidered with leaf devices in gold and pearls. The hem has similar ornamentation.

German Emperors Coronation Robes Dalmatica. Medieval clothing. 11th century costume.

Fig. 2. Cut of the Dalmatica.

The Alba

(2) The alba (Fig. 3.), worn over the dalmatica. It takes its name from its color. It is of white silk material, a kind of thick taffeta of good quality. It is like a chorister’s surplice, and very wide at the foot. The sleeves are slightly pointed, and ornamented with broad stripes of gold and pearls on the shoulders, at the wrists, and in front at the neck, where there are two gold cords. At the foot is a very wide hem divided into five horizontal stripes. The first and fourth of these stripes have various lines, which look like moire. In the second and the lowest of the stripes is a Latin inscription, and in the middle stripe (the broadest) there is ornamental embroidery. From the inscription it appears that this robe was made in Palermo in the year 1181, in the fifteenth year of the reign of William II, King of Sicily, the son of King William I. Presumably it came to be part of the German Imperial treasures through the Emperor Henry VI, who married an aunt of William II, or through Henry’s son, Frederick II, who had become heir to the kingdom of Sicily.

German Emperors Coronation Robes. The Alba. 11th century clothing. Middle ages costume.

Fig.3. Cut of the Alba.

The Stola

(3) The stola, a long, narrow strip of violet silk richly studded with pearls and precious stones. From both ends depend three long tassels of gold. The king who was to be crowned had this stola put round his neck over the alba in the vestry. It was crossed over the breast and fastened with a girdle.

The Pluviale or Pallium

(4) The pluviale, or pallium, is a mantle reaching to the feet, open in front, having at the top a golden clasp; it has a sash studded with stones and kept in place by a pin thrust through it. The mantle is made of red silk lined with taffeta. A tree-like decoration edged with diamonds divides it longitudinally into two halves. On each half is embroidered in pearls and gold a large lion, with a camel beneath it. The neck of the mantle is low, and has a hem of gold braid. The garment is so made that it has to be put on over the head. The braid, edged with stones and pearls, goes round the neck and down the front on both sides to the foot. In the angles formed by the braid at each side of the neck a rose is embroidered in small stones and surrounded by pearls. Along the foot of the mantle, between two double rows of pearls, an Arabic inscription is embroidered in gold lettering.
Probably this mantle was part of the spoil brought from the Holy Land by the Emperor Frederick I, or by his son Frederick, Duke of Swabia, afterward finding its way among the Sicilian royal treasures through the Emperor Henry VI, who in 1186 married Constantia, sister of William I, King of Sicily, and finally being added to the German treasures through the Emperor Frederick II, son of Henry VI. A large part of these treasures was lost in the year 1248, when the Parmese conquered the city of Vittoria.

German Emperors Coronation Mantle. Medieval clothing. Middle ages costume.

German Emperors Coronation Mantle

(5) The gloves are knitted in purple silk and decorated with pearls and precious stones.
(6) The stockings are of red silk, with a fairly broad stripe braided with gold at the top.
(7) The shoes are of dull satin, cornelian red, and embroidered with gold and pearls. The soles, inside and out, are covered with red saffian.

(8) Two girdles, which were used to lift the robes from the ground. One is of spun silk, cornelian red, made like galloon braid, with lettering in gold thread. The ends of this girdle are decorated with lion-heads stamped out of sheet gold and with five gold buttons hanging from five triple strings. Each of the lions has a pearl in his maw. The other girdle is made of silver-gilt thread, and has a buckle of gold.

See also: Coronation Dalmatica of German Emperor Henry II.

Medieval Franks dress of the 10th Century.

Medieval Franks dress of the 10th Century. Frankish King, Queen, Noble ladies, King Charles the Bald, Page, Court scribe, Emperor Henry II, Bishop.

Medieval Franks dress of the 10th Century.

Medieval Franks dress of the 10th Century.

Top row left: Frankish king and queen. Right: Frankish noble ladies.
Bottom row left to right: King Charles the Bald with Empire insignia. Page and court scribe. Right: Emperor Henry II and Frankish bishop.

On the history of costumes. Münchener Bilderbogen. Edited by Braun and Schneider 1860.

Medieval Clothes in 5th to 10th Century.

Medieval Clothes. Warriors Eastern Roman Empire, Byzantium. Frankish noble ladies. Emperor Charles the Great and Empress. Frankish court costumes

Medieval Clothes in 5th to 10th Century.

Medieval Clothes in V to X. Century.

Top row left: warriors in armor, helmet, shield, swords and lances of the Eastern Roman Empire, Byzantium. Right: Clothing Frankish noble ladies. Emperor Charles the Great and Empress.
Bottom row left: Carolingian Frankish court costumes. Right: Pre-Christian time. Clothing of the old Egyptians. Egyptian warrior. Egyptian King (Pharaoh) in war dress. Egyptian charioteer. (From Charlemagne survives no contemporary portrait. One of the oldest representations of Charles found in the Sacramentary of Charles the Bald from around 870, which shows him in the Carolingian clothing and thus provides a representative view of a high nobleman of the Carolingian period)

On the history of costumes. Münchener Bilderbogen. Edited by Braun and Schneider 1860.

Medieval Clothes of the Carolingians in the 7th and 8th Century.

Carolingians costumes of Maid of honor, Prophetess. Knight in armor, Bishop, Nobleman, Troubadour, Minstrel, Duke, King, Queen, General, Peasants.

Carolingians in the 7th and 8th Century.

Medieval Clothes of the Carolingians in the 7th and 8 Century.

Top row left: maid of honor to the Empress. Carolingian queen. Prophetess. Right: Carolingian knights in armor and armament. Bishop and nobleman.
Bottom row left: troubadour, minstrel. Carolingian duke and knight in armor and armament. Right: Carolingian king, General in armor and field banner. Carolingian peasants. Drawing by Carl von Häberlin.

On the history of costumes. Münchener Bilderbogen. Edited by Braun and Schneider 1860.

Life-size warrior figures in full armor and equipment.

Roman legionary, Gallic warrior, Greek Hoplite Warrior, Knight of the 12th Century. Carolingian Frankish knights. Merovingian warriors

Life-size warrior figures

Life-size warrior figures in full armor and equipment.

Life-size warrior figures in full costume and equipment using individual original pieces. The reconstructions of the Gimbelschen weapons collection (Karl Gimbel) appeared in 1902 with illustrations and descriptions at Mittler and Son Berlin.
Head and limbs of the figures are carved from wood, movable part, each piece is up to them removable. The main purpose is to show the different armor types.

  1. Roman Legionary by the reliefs of Trajan’s column, Rome.
  2. Gallic warrior of about 400-200 BC.
  3. Greek Hoplite Warrior ca 600 BC.
  4. Knight of the 12th Century in the leather strip armor.
  5. Carolingian Frankish knight 9th-10th Century.
  6. Merovingian Frankish warrior about 600 AD.

Karl Gimbel: The Reconstruction of the Gimbel’s collection of weapons, Berlin 1902.
1. Römischer Legionär nach den Reliefs der Trajans Säule Rom.
2. Gallischer Krieger von ca. 400-200 vor Christi Geburt.
3. Griechischer Krieger Hoplite ca. 600 vor Christi Geburt.
4. Ritter aus dem 12. Jahrhundert im lederstreifigen Harnisch.
5. Karolingisch fränkischer Ritter 9.-10. Jahrhundert.
6. Merowingisch fränkischer Krieger ca 600 nach Christi Geburt.

Karl Gimbel: Die Reconstructionen der Gimbel’schen Waffensammlung. Mittler-Verlag, Berlin 1902.

Women in the reign of Charles the Bald.

Medieval woman costume. Middle ages Carolingian clothing. 9th century dress

Women in 9th century.

Carolingian Costume of a Women in the reign of Charles the Bald.

Charles the Bald (823-877), from the noble family of the Carolingian was from 843 to 877 West Frankish king and from 875 to 877 King of Italy and Roman Emperor.

“Modes et Costumes Historiques“.  Edited by Hippolyte Louis Emile and Polidor Jean Charles Pauquet. Published by Cassell, Petter & Galpin London, 1864

Costume French carolingian queen and king 10th century

French Carolingian Costumes, Queen and King. Medieval 10th Century clothing.

French Queen and King Xth century

French carolingian queen and king 10th century. Ceremonial robes.

“Modes et Costumes Historiques“. Drawing by Xavier Willemin. Edited and steel engraving by Hippolyte Louis Emile and Polidor Jean Charles Pauquet. Published by Cassell, Petter & Galpin London, 1864

Medieval Merovingian Frankish Queen

Medieval clothing 5th century dress. Saint Clotilde Chrodechild Merovingian Frankish Queen.

Saint Clotilde woman of King Clovis I.

Medieval Merovingian Frankish Queen

Clotilde or Chrodechild (475–545), princess of Burgundy, was the second wife of Merovingian Frankish king Clovis I  (Salian Frankish dynasty), and by this marriage, Queen of the Franks. She confessed to Catholicism and contributed to the decision in Clovis, also accept this form of Christianity.
After the death of Clovis in 511 Clotilde founded monasteries and churches. She became, like her husband and her daughter buried in the Church of the Apostles in Paris, the later church of Sainte-Geneviève.
Saint Clothilde as she is honored as patroness of women and notaries. She is often represented with a model of the church and a book, donating the poor. Her celebration is the 3rd June. Clotilde is revered as sacred by the Church.

“Modes et Costumes Historiques“.  Edited by Hippolyte Louis Emile and Polidor Jean Charles Pauquet. Published by Cassell, Petter & Galpin London, 1864

Coronation mantle, Dalmatica of German Emperor Henry II.

11th century clothing. Middle ages coronation mantle. Medieval German nobility costume.

Dalmatica of Emperor Henry II.

Coronation mantle, Dalmatica of German Emperor Henry II. Medieval Ecclesiastical Dress.

Dalmatica. Coronation mantle of Emperor Henry II. 973-1024. King of the East Frankish kingdom (Regnum Francorum Orientalium), Roman-German Emperor.

Source: Cathedral Treasure of Bamberg.

10th century clothing. Medieval Nobility Costumes. German Emperor Henry II

German Emperor Henry II between two bishops in Seeoner Pontifical. Bamberg, State Library,

See also: The German Royal Costume. Coronation Robes of the German Emperors

Carolingian Knight in armor, Bishop, Priest and Burgess.

Knight in armor. Bishop, Priest. Middle Ages costumes. Medieval clothing. Charlemagne Carolingian dresses.

Knight in armor, Bishop, Priest and Burgess.

Medieval Carolingian clothing 751-987.

Medieval costume of Carolingian Knight in armor, Bishop, Priest and Burgess.