Category Archives: Directoire

Jean-Sylvain Bailly 1736-1793.

Jean-Sylvain Bailly. French Revolution. Freemason. French Politician

Jean-Sylvain Bailly 1736-1793.

Jean-Sylvain Bailly 1736-1793.

Freemason, and political leader of the early part of the French Revolution. He presided over the Tennis Court Oath.

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Jean Paul Marat 1743-1793.

Jean Paul Marat. Portrait French Revolution History. Directoire costume

Jean Paul Marat 1743-1793. Radical journalist and politician during the French Revolution.

Jean Paul Marat 1743-1793. Portrait French Revolution History.

Jean Paul Marat was a physician, naturalist and author of scientific and political writings. During the French Revolution, he wrote the Ami du Peuple, a newspaper that followed the practices of the counter-revolution with sharp polemics. He was on the side of the mountain party deputy in the National Convention and for a period President of the Club of the Jacobins. He was blamed for the September Massacres in particular by the propaganda of his political opponents. By the assassination by Charlotte Corday He became the “martyrs of the revolution”.

Gallery: Portraits by people during the French Revolution

The Assassination of Marat (13th July, 1793).

Marat was a native of Switzerland, who settled in Paris first as a horse-doctor; after which he practiced as a surgeon, and obtained some little notoriety for scientific researches. When the revolution broke out, he abandoned his profession, and became the editor of a journal called The People’s Friend, in which the king, the nobles, the clergy, and the old government met with unmeasured abuse.

In the new constitution he was one of the Paris Municipality, and president of the Committee of the Commune. He was afterwards the Paris deputy in the National Convention. A young Norman girl, 25 years of age, of poor but noble parentage, Charlotte de Corday by name, looking upon Marat as the head and chief of the Red Republicans, resolved to get rid of him. She was a religious enthusiast; and “Judith” was her model, whom “the Lord gifted with a special beauty for the deliverance of Israel.” Charlotte, living with her aunt at Caen [Car’n], conceived a romantic attachment to Madame Roland and the Girondists; and when several of them, who escaped the proscription of May, sought refuge in Caen, she called upon them to converse with them on her favourite theme.
On the 9th of July, she left her aunt’s house, and, on arriving at Paris, took an apartment close by the house where Marat was dwelling. Marat was ill at the time, and confined to the house. Charlotte requested by letter an interview, and called at half-past seven o’clock on the evening of the 13th. Marat was in a bath, but allowed the beautiful young girl to enter the room.
A coarse covering was thrown across the bath, and the two entered into conversation. The subject was the Girondists, who had taken refuge in Caen [Car’n]. “Before the week is out,” said Marat, “not one of them shall have escaped the guillotine.” Scarcely had he uttered these words, when the young girl drew a knife from her kerchief, and plunged it to the hilt in Marat’s heart. He gave one loud expiring cry, and sank back dead in the bath.

Some of the household entered; one felled the murderess to the ground with a chair, another trampled her under foot. A crowd gathered round the house; a commissary of police entered, and took the assassin to the Abbaye, the nearest prison. Two days afterwards, she was sent to the guillotine, and died saying, “One man have I slain to save a hundred thousand.” Her beauty was extraordinary, and gave a lively interest to her sanguinary but heroic conduct. Marat was almost deified for this assassination.* He was looked on as the Republican martyr. A splendid funeral was accorded him, in which every section joined; and a crowd of people, almost without number, followed in the train.

Four women bore the bath in which he had been murdered. Another carried on a pike his blood-stained shirt. Then followed eight bearers with the wooden bedstead on which he had been wont to sleep; and the corpse was laid on the bed, with its head exposed to view. Salvos of artillery were fired every few minutes. The cortege traversed all the principal streets, and rested at last at the Pantheon, where the remains were interred among the “heroes of the nation;” but ere long the whole feeling of the people was completely changed, and the mouldering idol was disinterred, and indignantly removed from this national mausoleum.

In appearance, Marat was ill- shaped, low of stature, and so ugly that he was the “scarecrow of children.” Though menacing all, and slaying without mercy, he was a desperate coward, and lived in daily dread of being assassinated. Even Danton and Robespierre were ashamed of being seen with him.
Like Masaniello, and others suddenly exalted to uncontrolled power, this hideous demagogue was intoxicated by success, and thought to gain notoriety by out-Heroding Herod. Of the three names of worst pre-eminence in the Reign of Terror, though Robespierre is generally the most execrated, Carrier and Marat were by far the most detestable.

Charlotte of Corday was doubtless influenced by patriotic feeling as well as private resentment in her attack upon Marat. The attempt of Staps on the life of Napoleon I. was actuated by a similar mistaken sense of public duty; as was that of Louvet, the assassin of the duc de Berri, in the reign of Louis XVIII.; of Alibaud on Louis-Philippe; of Orsini on Napoleon III.; and of many others.

Charlotte Corday. Asassination. Marat. French revolution

Charlotte Corday. Saint-Saturnin des Ligneries

Charlotte Corday was rather tall, but admirably proportioned, with a figure full of grace and dignity. Her hands, arms, and shoulders, were models of beauty. An expression of gentleness and serenity characterised her fair oval countenance and regular features. Her open forehead, dark well-arched eyebrows, and eyes of a deep grey colour, added to her grave and meditative appearance. Her nose was straight and well formed; her mouth serious, but very beautiful. Like most of the Norman women, her complexion was transparent ; and thick brown hair fell in curls round her neck and shoulders. Some few years after her death, an old man was asked if she really were so yery beautiful. „Aye,” replied the old man,” there are none such now.”

  • The anniversary of the death of Marat was a national fete day to the end of the Revolution. In such In such processions twelve young ladies were appointed to carry urns, supposed to contain the tears of France. It was death to refuse this office.

Source: THE POLITICAL, SOCIAL, AND LITERARY HISTORY OF FRANCE: BROUGHT DOWN TO THE MIDDLE OF THE YEAR 1874. THE REV. DR. COBHAM BREWER.

Related:
 Louis XIV. , Louis XV. , Louis XVI., Baroque, Rococo, Directoire, French Revolution, Regency, Empire, Restoration or Romanticism fashion era. German Biedermeier.




 

  1. The French Fashion History.
  2. Reign of Louis XIV. 1643 to 1715
  3. The Reign of Louis XV. 1715 to 1774.
  4. Reign of Louis XVI. 1780 to 1789.
  5. The French Republic 1789 to 1802.
  6. Timeline of the French Revolution 1789 – 1799.
  7. Les Modes sous la revolution 1792-1799 by Paul Louis Victor de Giafferri.
  8. Reign of Napoleon I. 1804 to 1814. France empire.
  9. Reigns of Louis XVIII. and Charles X. 1815 to 1830. Restoration,  Romanticism
  10. Fashion in the Reign of Philippe. 1830 to 1848. Victorian era. Romanticism fashion.
  11. The Second Republic. 1848 -1851. Victorian era. “Second Rococo”.
  12. The use of the Corset in the reign of Louis XVI.
  13. Ladies hat styles from 1776-1790 by Rose Bertin.
  14. Fashion under the  French revolution 1789 to 1802.
  15. Paris fashion 1793 to 1795. French revolution.
  16. The Execution of the King Louis XVI.
  17. The Execution of Marie-Antoinette.
  18. The Incroyables and Muscadins. The French directory dandies.
  19. Les Incroyables et Merveilleuses. “The Directoire Style” between 1795–1804.
  20. Nymphs and Merveilleuses. By Octave Uzanne.
  21. Fashion in Paris after the Revolution. By Octave Uzanne. 1796-1800.
  22. Portraits by people during the French Revolution
  23. The Gallery of Fashion. by Nikolaus von Heideloff, London.
  24. Comparison of the French and English modes. 1808 to 1815
  25. The Salon of Madame Récamier during the French Revolution.
  26. The Salons of Paris before the French Revolution.
  27. Caraco a´la francaise in 1786.
  28. The Evolution of Modern Feminine Fashion 1786.
  29. Fashion in Paris and London, 1780 to 1788.
  30. Historic hairstyles from Ancient times to the Empire.
Incroyable and Merveilleuse. French revolution dresses
French revolution dresses. Incroyable and Merveilleuse. Incroyable and Directoire. French revo... Read more
1789 • 1790 • 18th Century • Directoire • France • French fashion history • Incroyables • Merveilleuses
French Directoire style • French Revolution Costume
The Arrest of Voltaire 1753 in Frankfurt
The Arrest of Voltaire 1753 (Francois-Marie Arouet 1694-1778). When staying in the German City... Read more
18th Century • France • French Ancien Régime fashion • Military • Rococo
World Theater
The young Napoleon Bonaparte.
The young Napoleon Bonaparte. French Revolution Period. Bonaparte in 1792 as a frequenter of a s... Read more
1792 • 18th Century • France
French Revolution Costume • Napoleon Bonaparte
Costume Habit vert saute culotte de Casimir.
Costume Habit vert saute culotte de Casimir. Cravate à oreilles de lièvre. Incroyables. Fren... Read more
18th Century • Directoire • First Empire • France • Georgian period • Incroyables • Regency period
Dandy • First Empire Style • French Directoire style • Horace Vernet • Regency period
French peasant farmer from the 16th to 18th century.
French peasant farmer from the 16th to 18th century. Taken from the Collection of the diversity o... Read more
17th Century • 18th Century • Baroque • France • French Ancien Régime fashion
Baroque fashion • Costumes civils et militaires des Français
Courtier in Rococo clothing in the time of Louis XV.
Courtier in Rococo clothing in the time of Louis XV. (1710-1774) Men's Fashion of the Rococo, Jus... Read more
18th Century • Court dress • France • French Ancien Régime fashion • Nobility • Rococo
Allonge wig • Rococo fashion
Ko-omote. Noh. Japanese theater masks.
Ko-omote. Noh. Japanese theater masks. Four no-masks. Above left: The blind singer. Semimaru Kimu... Read more
18th Century • Asia • Japan
Mask • Theatre

Portrait of James Harris, 1st Earl of Malmesbury.

James Harris, 1st Earl of Malmesbury 1746–1820. English diplomat. Portrait French Revolution History

James Harris, 1st Earl of Malmesbury 1746–1820. English diplomat.

James Harris, 1st Earl of Malmesbury.

As a British diplomat, he negotiated unsuccessfully in 1796 and 1797 with the French Directorate in Paris and Lille, but then had to retire because of deafness. 1800 Harris was raised to the Earl of Malmesbury.

Free eBook: Diaries and correspondence of James Harris, first Earl of Malmesbury.

Related:
 Louis XIV. , Louis XV. , Louis XVI., Baroque, Rococo, Directoire, French Revolution, Regency, Empire, Restoration or Romanticism fashion era. German Biedermeier.




 

  1. The French Fashion History.
  2. Reign of Louis XIV. 1643 to 1715
  3. The Reign of Louis XV. 1715 to 1774.
  4. Reign of Louis XVI. 1780 to 1789.
  5. The French Republic 1789 to 1802.
  6. Timeline of the French Revolution 1789 – 1799.
  7. Les Modes sous la revolution 1792-1799 by Paul Louis Victor de Giafferri.
  8. Reign of Napoleon I. 1804 to 1814. France empire.
  9. Reigns of Louis XVIII. and Charles X. 1815 to 1830. Restoration,  Romanticism
  10. Fashion in the Reign of Philippe. 1830 to 1848. Victorian era. Romanticism fashion.
  11. The Second Republic. 1848 -1851. Victorian era. “Second Rococo”.
  12. The use of the Corset in the reign of Louis XVI.
  13. Ladies hat styles from 1776-1790 by Rose Bertin.
  14. Fashion under the  French revolution 1789 to 1802.
  15. Paris fashion 1793 to 1795. French revolution.
  16. The Execution of the King Louis XVI.
  17. The Execution of Marie-Antoinette.
  18. The Incroyables and Muscadins. The French directory dandies.
  19. Les Incroyables et Merveilleuses. “The Directoire Style” between 1795–1804.
  20. Nymphs and Merveilleuses. By Octave Uzanne.
  21. Fashion in Paris after the Revolution. By Octave Uzanne. 1796-1800.
  22. Portraits by people during the French Revolution
  23. The Gallery of Fashion. by Nikolaus von Heideloff, London.
  24. Comparison of the French and English modes. 1808 to 1815
  25. The Salon of Madame Récamier during the French Revolution.
  26. The Salons of Paris before the French Revolution.
  27. Caraco a´la francaise in 1786.
  28. The Evolution of Modern Feminine Fashion 1786.
  29. Fashion in Paris and London, 1780 to 1788.
  30. Historic hairstyles from Ancient times to the Empire.
Costume Toque de Velours. Witz-choura de Satin.
Costume Toque de Velours. Witz-choura de Satin. Merveilleuses. French neoclassical fashion b... Read more
18th Century • Directoire • First Empire • France • Georgian period • Merveilleuses • Regency period
First Empire Style • French Directoire style • Fur • Horace Vernet • Muff • Neoclassical dresses • Regency period
American Colonial style 18th century
American Colonial style 18th century. Brief overview of the cultural epochs by using selected cha... Read more
18th Century • North America
Decoration • Furniture • North American costumes
Coiffure Louis XVI.
Historic hairstyles. 18th century coiffure Louis XVI. France Rococo period fashion Read more
1750 • 18th Century • France • Hairstyle
Rococo fashion
Ordre Royal et Militaire de Saint-Louis. Rege de Louis XIV 1706.
Knight of St. Louis (Chevalier de St. Louis), Reign of Louis XIV 1706. The Ordre Royal et Milit... Read more
18th Century • Baroque • Court dress • France • French Ancien Régime fashion • Military • Modes et Costumes Historiques • Nobility
Baroque era • Modes et Costumes Historiques
White satin petticoat trimmed with fur. Regency costumes 1795.
White satin petticoat trimmed with fur. Evening Dresses. Heideloff`s Gallery of Fashion January ... Read more
1795 • 18th Century • England • Gallery of Fashion • Georgian period • Regency period
England Georgian Era Fashion • Neoclassical dresses • Nikolaus von Heideloff • Regency period
Ancient Greco Roman warriors, gods and objects.
Ancient Greco Roman warriors, gods and objects. Shields, Armor and Costumes Aggiunte all'opera Il... Read more
1750 • 18th Century • Ancient • Ancient Greece • Military • Roman
Ancient Military
Coiffes, Capuchons. Les modes sous Louis XV. La mode du rococo.
Rococo caps and hoods. Louis XV fashion history from 1715 to 1774. L’histoire du costume fémin... Read more
1715 • 1720 • 1770 • 1775 • 18th Century • Court dress • France • French Ancien Régime fashion • French fashion history • Rococo
Baroque fashion • Paul Louis de Giafferri • Rococo fashion

Our goddesses of the Year VIII., (1799).

French Empire Costumes. Regency Fashion. France Revolution uniform. Octave Uzanne. Eugène Gaujèan. Albert Lynch

Our goddesses of the Year VIII., (1799)

Our goddesses of the Year VIII., (1799). Regency – Directoire fashion.

Nos déesses de l’an VIII. From the Book: The Frenchwoman of the century; Fashions – Manners – Usages, by Octave Uzanne. Illustrations in water colours by Albert Lynch. Engraved in colours by Eugène Gaujean.

Incroyable with bicorne hat.

French revolution costumes. France Directory fashion. Incroyables. Merveilleuses.

French revolution costumes. The mysterious conversations.

The mysterious conversations. France Directory costumes c. 1790.

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Costumes of a legislator. Representatives of the Directorate.

Costumes of a legislator. The French people’s representatives of the Directorate.

Costumes of a legislator, designed by Jacques-Louis David 1748-1825, for: Projet de costume civique – Habit de législateur. Le représentant du peuple François en function. Engraver Vivant Denon 1747-1825.

Parures. Les Modes sous la Revolution 1792-1799.

French Revolution costumes. Merveilleuses. Jewelry Neoclassicism. Neoclassical fashion.

Jewelry. Parures.

Jewelry. French Revolution 1792 to 1799.

L’histoire du costume féminin français. Les Modes sous la Revolution 1792 – 1799. Parures – Planche 12.
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Chaussures. Les Modes sous la Revolution 1792-1799.

French Revolution costumes. Shoes. Merveilleuses. Neoclassicism. Neoclassical fashion.

Shoes. Chaussures.

Shoes. French Revolution 1792 to 1799.

L’histoire du costume féminin français. Les Modes sous la Revolution 1792 – 1799. Chaussures – Planche 11.
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Étoffes. Les Modes sous la Revolution 1792-1799.

French Revolution costumes. Merveilleuses. Neoclassicism. Neoclassical fashion.

Fabrics. Étoffes

Fabrics. French Revolution 1792 to 1799.

L’histoire du costume féminin français. Les Modes sous la Revolution 1792 – 1799. Étoffes – Planche 10.
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Broderies. Les Modes sous la Revolution 1792-1799.

French Revolution costumes. Embroidery. Merveilleuses. Neoclassicism. Neoclassical fashion.

Embroidery. Broderies.

Broderies. French Revolution 1792 to 1799.

L’histoire du costume féminin français. Les Modes sous la Revolution 1792 – 1799. Broderies – Planche 9.
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Manches. Les Modes sous la Revolution 1792-1799.

French Revolution costumes. Merveilleuses. Neoclassicism. Neoclassical fashion.

Sleeves. Manches.

Sleeves. French Revolution 1792 to 1799.

L’histoire du costume féminin français. Les Modes sous la Revolution 1792 – 1799. Manches – Planche 8.
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