Spanish warriors, jongleurs, minstrels in the 11th century.

Spanish warriors,armour, 11th century,middle ages,medieval,illustration,Henry Shaw,Anglo-Norman soldiers

Spanish warriors in armour, 11th century.

Spanish warriors from a MS. of the end of the eleventh century

ornamented initial letters, E,Drop-cap, Medieval manuscript, 10th century, Anglo-Saxon, Norman

Ornamented initial letter E

EVERY step which we trace back in the history of the nations of Europe brings us nearer to a uniformity of costume. Fashions in dress did not begin to go through that quick vicissitude of change which characterizes modern times, till towards the thirteenth century. We can trace little variation in the dress of the Anglo-Saxons during the whole period of their history, and not much between that of the Anglo-Saxons and the Franks.

As people became more distinctly separated from each other by national jealousies, and long and obstinate wars, the new fashions adopted in one country were more slowly communicated to another, and thus the similarity of costume becomes separated by distance of date; while some countries became so entirely estranged from each other during a long period, that the resemblance of costume and the simultaneous variation was altogether lost.

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Cross from Mount Athos. Monastery of Caracalla.

Byzantine Cross, Mount Athos, Henry Shaw,Christian,monasterie,Caracalla, Byzantine art

Byzantine Cross. Mount Athos. Monastery of Caracalla

CROSS FROM MOUNT ATHOS.

Initial letter B, Medieval manuscript, Durham Book, 7th century,Henry Shaw,

Initial letter B, Manuscript 10th century.

BEFORE the Christian era, Mount Athos was celebrated for the length of its shadow (ingenti tellurem proximus umbra vestit. Stat.), which was said to reach as far as the isle of Lemnos, for the multitude of its hares (quot lepores in Atho. Ovid.), and for having been the scene of one of the most wonderful exploits of Xerxes, who in his invasion of Greece is said to have cut a passage for his ships through the lower part of this vast mass of mountains.

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Illustrations of Prudentius. Anglo-Saxon civil and military costume.

9th century, Anglo-Saxon, dresses, costumes, history, england, Psychomachia, Prudentius

Anglo-Saxon civil and military costume 9th century.

ILLUSTRATIONS OF PRUDENTIUS.

Aurelius Prudentius Clemens, (* 348; – after 405) was a late antique Christian poet.

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The Black Prince. Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales.

Black Prince, Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales

The Black Prince. Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales.

The Black Prince.

Member of the French-born ruling dynasty Anjou-Plantagenêt which stood from 1154 to 1399 in direct line and until 1485 in the side lines Lancaster and York the kings of England.

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William Longespée, 1st Earl of Salisbury.

Effigy, William Longespée, 1st Earl of Salisbury, Knight, 13th century, costume, dress, armour, middle ages, crusader

Effigy of William Longespée, 1st Earl of Salisbury, son of Henry II ‘Curtmantle’ d’Anjou, King of England and Ida de Tosny.

William Longespée, 1st Earl of Salisbury (1167-1226, also William I Longespée or Lungespée).

dropcap, Inkunabel, Initial, middle ages. 13th century, illuminated manuscript, Henry Shaw

Initial letter from MS. Arundel, No. 91. Known as Psalter and Book of Hours (the ‘Howard Psalter and Hours’), 14th century. Attributed to John of Metz ‘De Lisle Psalter’

MUCH of romantic interest is attached to the name of Longuespee. The first of the name, who is represented in our plate, was the son of King Henry II. by his celebrated mistress, Fair Rosamond.

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Head-dresses at the beginning of the 16th century

Anne of Bretagne, Claude de France, Headdress, 15th century, Henry Shaw, middle ages, fashion

Anne of Bretagne, Claude de France?

Head-dresses of the ladies of the fifteenth century

Initial Letter, Pliny. 15th century. Middle ages, manuscript.

L- Initial Letter

ELEGANCE and gracefulness, which had seldom exhibited themselves in the horned and peaked head-dresses of the ladies of the fifteenth century, began again to show themselves in the various headdresses of the beginning of the sixteenth. This was more especially visible in France, which country, then as now, took the lead in the fashions of dress.

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Knights in combat. England 13th century

Knights fighting, England 13th century, Middle ages, combat,Henry Shaw, armour

Medieval knights in combat. MS. Reg. 20 D, I.

KNIGHTS FIGHTING.

Q- dropcap, Inkunabel, Initial, middle ages. 13th century, illuminated manuscript, Henry Shaw

Q- dropcap. Royal Library, Paris 13th century.

QUIETNESS and peace were not among the most prominent characteristics of those ages, in which, unfettered by the sage power of judicious and efficient laws, people were taught to seek justice rather by their own strength, than by the intermediation of others. At that period, the songs which sounded most musical to the ears of the iron-cased barons were the romances that told of hard blows and doughty adventures, and the pictures most beautiful to their eyes were such as those which we here give in ouer plate.

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Richard II. King of England 1377 to 1399.

King Richard II, Costumes, Middle ages, Knight, England, 14th century,

King Richard II. Date about 1377.

King Richard II. 1367-1400.

Richard II (Richard Plantagenet, also known as Richard of Bordeaux 1367-1400), King of England from 1377 to 1399.

PERHAPS no monarch under the same circumstances ever enjoyed so great a share of the sympathy of posterity, as the ill-fated, though at the same time (it must be confessed) ill-deserving Richard II.

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