FIGURES OF ECCLESIASTICS.
FROM THE SCULPTURES OF THE CATHEDRAL OF CHARTRES.
Initial letter C
CHARTRES is one of the most ancient and interesting towns in France. Popular traditions carry the date of the foundation of the city back to the times of the deluge; and it has been pretended by some of the old antiquaries that its splendid cathedral stands on the site of an ancient Druidical temple.
1 Wooden statue of a man (around 2600 BC). 2 Dagger with bronze blade and ivory handle. 3 Ivory carving (gods scepter and toad). 4 Chair made of ebony intarsia with ivory. 5 The Queen Amenerdas (around 720 BC). 6 Carved wooden spoon with cover (naked woman with lute). 7 Sphinx of red granite (XIII dynasty). 8 Sarcophagus (XIX Dynasty). 9 Golden earrings. 10 Vessel made of faience. 11 Mirror (bronze). 12 Pot in Cypriote style. 13 Painted wood box. 14 Spoon. 15 Cup made of faience (marsh birds). 16 Carved wooden box. 17 Family Group (XIX to XX. Dynasty. 1450-1150 BC).
Egyptian arts and architecture
1 Sphinx and pyramids at Giza. 2 Temple on the island of Philae. 3 Temple of Edfu, seen from the eastern pylons of. 4 Rock tombs of Beni Hasan.
Source: Brockhaus encyclopedia. 14th Edition.
The Temple of Isis on the Philae
Isis Temple on the island of Philae. “House of the beginning”.
Column capital of Philae
The Inner Temple view of Philae.
Hut-chenti, “House of the beginning”. As Pearl of the Nile to the temple of Isis on the Philae Island was praised.
Ceres is the Roman goddess of agriculture, fertility and marriage. Similarly, it is considered as lawgiver. She was the daughter of Saturn and Rhea. In Greek Demeter is Ceres.
“A statue of Ceres, crowned in the manner of the Egyptian Isis. In front of the diadem is a disk or globe placed between two serpents, and surmounted with ears of corn, conformable to the description which is given of this goddess by Apuleius. In her right hand are some ears of corn and in her left hand she holds the thuribulum,” or rather situla. (1)
This figure is clothed in a very long and ample tunic descending quite to the ground, leaving visible only the extremities of the feet; the sleeves are extremely full, falling down to the elbows, and fastened, along the upper side of the arms, only by fibulae. Over this she wears a pallium, which consists of an oblong piece of cloth, doubled at about one third of its height from its upper end, and fastened upon the right shoulder, the double passing under the left arm, and the open edges hanging down the right side; large bullæ, probably of lead, being fastened to each corner to prevent its flying too much about to the inconvenience of the wearer. That which was originally attached to the corner which hangs down in front, has been broken off. On her feet are slight, open sandals. Her hair is parted in front, and drawn in wavy locks to the back part of the head, where it is collected into a knot, whence fall two curly ringlets on each side, resting upon the shoulders. In the right hand, besides the ears of corn which are folded back, are pieces of fruit, probably an apple and a date, not seen from the position of the hand as represented in the engraving; and in the left hand a garland composed of flowers hangs over the side of the situla, disclosing within the bend the ring into which the handle is inserted.
This figure has received the name of Ceres chiefly perhaps on account of the corn and fruit, which are held in the right hand; but this hand is a restoration, probably taken from some ancient statue, but certainly not belonging to the one now before us, as, in proportions and workmanship, it does not correspond with the left. No conclusion, therefore, can be safely drawn from these adjuncts, and the similar statues in other collections represented with the situla are of little use in the illustration of this figure, as in nearly every case they have both arms restored. But, as all the female figures on coins and bas reliefs with the situla appear to be representations of Isis, we are disposed to think that either the sistrum or some other attribute of that goddess was held in the right hand of the statue now under consideration. The head of this figure, though it appears rather large in proportion to the body, is, we believe, the same which originally belonged to it. The objects above the disk, which have the appearance of ears of corn, are in the situation where, upon a genuine Egyptian figure, would be seen two large feathers; whether the artist, copying what he did not understand, ignorantly converted the feathers into ears of corn, or whether it was designedly so done in conformity with a practice not unfrequent in Rome, of modifying or altering a symbol when one or more divinities were blended together, it would be difficult to decide. From the statement of Diodorus, it would appear that in his time Ceres and Isis were scarcely distinguished from each other, and it is a hopeless task to attempt to follow the Romans in these pantheistic combinations of divinities by which they made each a representative of the whole Olympian conclave. It is not improbable then that this figure was intended to represent the union of the two divinities, Ceres and Isis.
This statue is not remarkable for excellence of workmanship, or perfect beauty of design, being rather short and broad in its proportions; the draperies however are gracefully and skilfully arranged. It is probable that it was executed about the time of the Emperor Hadrian, or perhaps a little later. Under the earlier Emperors the worship of Isis had been discouraged, her statues destroyed, and her temples rased to the ground; Hadrian however gave this superstition some countenance, and appropriated part of his Villa Tiburtina to the use of its votaries; Commodus and Caracalla still further promoted the same worship; and, as about this epoch Rome abounded with exotic divinities, and the exercise of the arts was at the same time much patronised, we find in the statues of the period several examples of the combinations of mythological symbols recorded by the contemporary historians. This statue was probably executed while such a spurious taste prevailed, and we are induced the rather to assign it to this period, and to Roman artists, because, in the purer ages of Greece itself, these illegitimate combinations were little known. The neck of this figure has been broken, the end of the nose restored. It was formerly in the Maccarani Palace at Rome. Height 4 f. 2 in.
(1)Thuribulum: A two-part vessel of a chain construction that has been used to burn incense in coals. Situala is a metal vessel type in the Etrusco-Italic area. Often it is decorated with a figural reliefs driven. The Situlae art style is typically one of the main sources of contemporary illustrations.
Libera, or the female Bacchus in a tunic of fine material.
A statue of Liberia, or the female Bacchus, crowned with a wreath of ivy. The hair is parted along the top of the head, and is gathered into a large knot behind; at each side descend two ringlets very formally adjusted, and at the top a small portion is tied into a bow. A wreath of ivy leaves and berries encircles the head. She is clothed in a tunic of fine material, furnished with ample sleeves fastened along the arm above the elbow with small buttons; it descends quite to the ground, a small portion appearing upon the right foot. Over this is a peplus of stronger texture, doubled at the shoulders where it is fastened; the under portion descends to the feet, the upper a little below the waist. The edges down the right side are left disunited and hang slightly separated, the corners of the shorter portion being kept down by small bulbs of lead or bronze. A belt, passing over the right shoulder and round the left side of the waist, supports this garment, and gives a graceful variety to its folds. In her left hand the goddess carries a bunch of grapes, and with her right supports a staff, which rests upon her shoulder. At her right foot is a panther playfully raising himself towards her upon his hind legs. She wears sandals with very thick soles, at the sides of which are strong clasps and open loops, the straps by which they were to be attached to the foot being purposely omitted. The beautiful simplicity with which the draperies are arranged, render this one of the most graceful and pleasing statues in the gallery. The calmness and dignified repose of the form, as well as the beauty of the countenance, might justify the conclusion that it was intended to represent Ariadne, rather than any other of the family or suite of Bacchus, who are more frequently represented with frantic gestures or, at least, displaying an exuberance of action, and engaged in Bacchic orgies. This statue has undergone some restoration, the nose and both arms being partially modern; the staff over the shoulder was probably a thyrsus. This statue was found by Mr. Gavin Hamilton, in the year 1776 at Roma Vecchia, a few miles from Rome, on the road to Frascati. It was purchased by the Hon. Charles Greville from whose collection it passed to that of Mr. Towneley.
Liber and Libera is a pair of ancient Roman gods, which took over the Greek cult of Dionysus and Kore. The Feast of Liberalia was at 17. March celebrated. The orgiastic bacchanalia were banned in Rome again or be curtailed in their often boundless excesses, but without resounding success.
Bust of a young and beardless satyr, distinguished, as usual, by the pointed ears of a goat, and by hair in front shaggy and rough, like that of the same animal. At the top and back of the head the hair is of finer quality, with almost feminine curls. It may be remarked that the face is more rounded than usual, and that the physiognomy is, agreeably to the character of the youthful satyrs, expressive of mental indolence, with a slight dash of petulance, not amounting to rudeness. Of the many representations of satyrs in the museums of continental Europe, perhaps a head in the Glyptothek at Munich (1) comes the nearest to the one before us.
This bust, which was bequeathed by the late R. Payne Knight, Esq., has been much restored, the nose, both the lips, and the breast being modern. It is of Parian marble, and in height without the pedestal, 12 1/2 inches.