Tag Archives: The War in the Peninsula

The War in the Peninsula. Sketches of the Country, character, and Costume, in Portugal and Spain, made during the campaign, and on the route of the British Army, in 1808 and 1809. Engraved and coloured from the drawings by the Rev. William Bradford. London: printed for John Booth, by William Savage, 1809.

Infant Capuchin in monastic garb. Salamanca 1809

Spanish infant capuchin costume. Woman dress and clothing. Spain national costume

Salamanca infant capuchin

Infant Capuchin in monastic garb.

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Servant Girls of Salamanca Spain 1809

Salamanca Castile and León. Traditional Spanish national costumes. Salamanca dress and clothing. The Peninsula War.

SERVANT GIRLS OF SALAMANCA.

SERVANT GIRLS OF SALAMANCA.

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Shepherds of the plains of Leon in their winter clothing

Traditional Spain shepards costume. Castile, Estremadura and León clothing. Bergers des plains de Léon. The Peninsula War

SHEPHERDS OF THE PLAINS OF LEON

SHEPHERDS OF THE PLAINS OF LEON, In their Winter Clothing.

THE dress of the Shepherds here represented, is only worn during the severest days of winter. It consists of a sort of sheepskin armour, with the woolly side outwards, over which is thrown a great coat or capa.
Thus prepared against inclement weather, the Shepherds are never absent from their flocks, during their winter excursions through the plains, and are always attended by dogs of a peculiarly fine breed, remarkable for their good nature as well as courage. In right of the privileges of the Mesta, (a chartered society of great flock owners, to which the law has granted considerable privileges of pasturage,) the migratory flocks commence their journey about the beginning of November, when the scanty herbage, and cold air of the mountains, render a change of place and climate necessary.
The two Castilles, Leon, and Estremadura, are the provinces which have suffered most in their agricultural interests by these annual incursions.
It has been urged by some who profit by this unequal law, that the delicate quality of the Spanish wool is acquired by this change of food and climate, an opinion, wholly refuted by well attested experiments, which prove that the wool of the stationary flocks of Estremadura, is in no degree inferior.

Gallery: The Peninsula War.
Sketches of the country, character, and costume, in Portugal and Spain, made during the campaign, and on the route of the British Army, in 1808 and 1809.

Peasants of the Corregimiento of Toro. Spain 1809

Corregimiento of Toro costumes, Montero cap, Wooden shoes. Castile and León. Traditional Spanish clothing. The Peninsula War.

PEASANTS OF THE CORREGIMIENTO OF TORO.

PEASANTS OF THE CORREGIMIENTO OF TORO.

BETWEEN Salamanca and Toro, a variation in dress, and a difference in external character is apparent, which produce a comparison by no means favourable to the peasantry of the latter district.

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Spanish Courier, 1809

Spanish saddle. Traditional Spanish courier costume.

SPANISH COURIER

SPANISH COURIER.

A COURIER’S approach to a town, is always announced by the loud cracking of his whip, and the jingling of bells attached to his horse’s furniture.
The peculiarity of the Courier’s dress, consists in a small hat, tied with a handkerchief under his chin, a jacket ornamented with slips of different coloured cloth, at the elbows and seams behind, and strong guards of leather worn over his knees.
The Spanish saddle is of very clumsy workmanship, much raised above the back of the horse, having a sort of wooden frame for the thighs, and wooden stirrups, bound with iron. Leathern bags, for the purpose of carrying letters, are suspended from the back of. the saddle, resting on the horse’s flanks; and bells are attached to the breech-band. Thus equipped, the Courier proceeds over all the variety of roads, at a brisk canter, generally quickened into a gallop on entering a town.

Gallery: The Peninsula War.
Sketches of the country, character, and costume, in Portugal and Spain, made during the campaign, and on the route of the British Army, in 1808 and 1809.

Spanish lady and Attendant, going to Mass.

Spanish lady. Traditional Spanish costumes. Spain Nobility Attendant

Spanish lady and Attendant, going to Mass.

Spanish lady and Attendant, going to Mass.

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Student of the Irish College, Salamanca Spain 1809

Traditional Spain costume. Student costume, Salamanca Castile and León

STUDENT OF THE IRISH COLLEGE, SALAMANCA.

STUDENT OF THE IRISH COLLEGE, SALAMANCA.

THE Students of the Irish College arc distinguished from the others of the university, by the habit represented in the sketch, which is composed of a coarse cloth gown, and cap. (The usual academical dress in Salamanca, is a black cloak and cocked hat, except in the Collegios Mayores, where it resembles that of the Irish Student, though of different colours.)

This seminary was instituted by King Philip the Second, and endowed with a liberal revenue chargeable on the crown, which provides for the establishment of a rector, and the maintenance and education of sixteen Students.

These young men are appointed by the Roman Catholic Bishops of Ireland, and after a term of seven years, which is devoted to their studies, they are sent for by the diocesans to assume the duties of the priesthood. An academical degree is not considered an indispensible qualification; although those of bachelor, licentiate, and doctor, may be acquired during their residence. A part of the magnificent convent of the Jesuits, after their expulsion, was appropriated to the use of the Irish College, by the late King Charles the Third.

Gallery: The Peninsula War.
Sketches of the country, character, and costume, in Portugal and Spain, made during the campaign, and on the route of the British Army, in 1808 and 1809.

Doctor of Salamanca. Spain 1809

Traditional Spanish ecclesiastics costume. Salamanca, Castile and León clothing. Enlightened scholar, The Peninsula War.

DOCTOR OF SALAMANCA.

DOCTOR OF SALAMANCA.

THIS sketch, which represents the ordinary dress of the Spanish ecclesiastics, was meant to convey some idea of a very respectable character of Salamanca, Dr. Curtis.
This gentleman, no less distinguished as an enlightened scholar, than valued as a citizen, has long presided over the Irish seminary with credit; he is now upwards of seventy years of age, and having been removed from his native country at an early age, he has acquired the habits of that in which he has settled, without losing the vivacity peculiar to his own. His services to the English army in general, and to many individuals of it, and the assistance afforded by his knowledge of the language, and his local information, made him well known and esteemed.
When the affairs of Spain took an unfavourable turn, all personal concern seemed to be lost in anxiety for his pupils; and when. he found their studies interrupted, and their stay in Salamanca unsafe, he recommended them to the protection of the English general, by whose authority they were appointed to situations in the army, which they accompanied to England. What has since become of the worthy rector has not been ascertained; but it is to be hoped that he will either find safety in Spain, or an honourable asylum in his native country.

Gallery: The Peninsula War.
Sketches of the country, character, and costume, in Portugal and Spain, made during the campaign, and on the route of the British Army, in 1808 and 1809.

Andalusian Dancers. Spain 1808

Spanish Fandango and Boleras costumes. Fandango, Seguidillas costume, Andalusian dresses. Madrilenian and Leonese.

ANDALUSIAN DANCERS

ANDALUSIAN DANCERS.

NOTWITHSTANDING the general gravity of the Spanish character, the dances peculiar to this nation are remarkable for the vivacity of their movements, which people of all ages and conditions delight to indulge in.
To the ear of a stranger, there is nothing in the melody or measure of the music, which is calculated to cause such exuberance of action: but to a Spaniard so irresistible is its effect, though not joining in the dance, as to impart an electric influence which sets the whole body in motion.
These airs are adapted to the guitar and tambourine, to which the Dancers keep time with castanets.
The Fandango and Boleras, each performed by one couple, are the favourite dances.
There is also a third, called the Seguidillas, danced by eight persons, something like a Cotillion, but partaking of the graces of the Fandango.
When the Fandango is exhibited on the stage, the performers are dres sed in the Andalusian habit: but this sketch represents a Madrilenian and Leonese.

Gallery: The Peninsula War.
Sketches of the country, character, and costume, in Portugal and Spain, made during the campaign, and on the route of the British Army, in 1808 and 1809.

ARMED PEASANT Of the Ciudad Rodrigo Militia. Spain 1808

Traditional Spanish costumes. Salamanca Castile and León peasants dress and clothing. The Peninsula War. Ciudad Rodrigo Militia.

ARMED PEASANT of the Ciudad Rodrigo Militia.

ARMED PEASANT Of the Ciudad Rodrigo Militia.

CIUDAD Rodrigo is a city in the province of Salamanca, situated on a rising ground, on the north bank of a river running into the Douro, in the midst of a flat open country, rich in corn and pasturage.
Its fortifications, which have lately been repaired, have some appearance of strength, and are now manned by the militia, a fine corps of between four and five hundred athletic young men, well equipped with English muskets and good toledos,
This city has a handsome cathedral, and is the See of a Bishop.
It contains near two thousand houses, well inhabited, and the citizens appear active and intelligent.

Gallery: The Peninsula War.
Sketches of the country, character, and costume, in Portugal and Spain, made during the campaign, and on the route of the British Army, in 1808 and 1809.

Peasants of the Corregimiento of Salamanca 1808

The Peninsula War. Traditional Spain costume. Men from Salamanca Clothing

A peasant from the corregimiento of Salamanca

The Peninsula War. Traditional Spain costume. Men from Salamanca Clothing

A peasant from the corregimiento of Salamanca

PEASANTS OF THE CORREGIMIENTO OF SALAMANCA.

UPON entering the Spanish territories on the road from Almeida to Salamanca, the traveller is struck with the change that appears in the dress and language of the people: but the circumstance most strongly marking a distinction greatly in favour of the Spaniards, is the cleanliness of their dwellings, which generally exhibit a degree of comfort and independence scarcely surpassed by what is seen in the best cottages of England. The costume of the men is dramatic and picturesque, and is well calculated to display a handsome person. It consists of a dark brown jerkin, having a sort of open stomacher, ornamented with curiously wrought buttons of silver, a sash or girdle round the waist, short cloth breeches, reaching half way down the thigh, with stockings of the same materials meeting them, and buskins tied round the feet and ancles with leathern thongs. A large cloak is drawn over the whole person, or worn folded on the shoulder, not without some attention to graceful effect.

This fashion is not peculiar to this district on the Frontier, but prevails in the neighbourhood of Salamanca, and through a great part of the kingdom of Leon.

Gallery: The Peninsula War.
Sketches of the country, character, and costume, in Portugal and Spain, made during the campaign, and on the route of the British Army, in 1808 and 1809.