Tennis Court Oath. The Third Estate.

Tennis Court Oath. Le Tiers, Serment du Jeu de paume, Révolution française

Tennis Court Oath. The Third Estate.

Tennis Court Oath.

The Third Estate Takes Refuge in the Tennis Court.

The Third Estate (tiers état) was composed socially very different and included by the upper classes about craftsmen, peasants and laborers to the urban lower classes all persons who did not belong to the first two Estates. The urban classes of the third estate were joined by their skepticism about the aristocracy of the ancien régime and their representatives, but they were divided into different groups. While the Third Estate was granted twice the number of members due to its increased self-awareness and its economic significance, but it was initially unclear whether the Estates General should vote according to objects or per capita basis. A vote by stands had from the outset means a majority of the nobility and clergy. In a vote by heads of the bourgeoisie could hope to draw parts of the nobility and clergy especially simple to his side. When Louis XVI. finally did not give the suggestion a vote according to the number, the deputies of the Third Estate declared on 17 June 1789 to the National Assembly and sworn, shall not go apart until a constitution was created for France (Tennis Court Oath).

By Étienne Lucien Mélingue. Publisher Selmar Hess. Editor Charles F. Horne. New York 1894.

 Louis XIV. , Louis XV. , Louis XVI., Baroque, Rococo, Directoire, French Revolution, Regency, Empire, Restoration or Romanticism fashion era. German Biedermeier.


  1. The French Fashion History.
  2. Reign of Charles IX. 1560 to 1574. (Tudor, Renaissance, Spanish court dress)
  3. Reign of Henri III. 1574 to 1589. (Renaissance, early Baroque, Spanish court dress, Tudor)
  4. Reigns of Henri IV. and Louis XIII. 1589 to 1643. (Baroque)
  5. Reign of Louis XIV. 1643 to 1715. (Baroque)
  6. The Reign of Louis XV. 1715 to 1774.
  7. Reign of Louis XVI. 1780 to 1789.
  8. The French Republic 1789 to 1802.
  9. Timeline of the French Revolution 1789 – 1799.
  10. Les Modes sous la revolution 1792-1799 by Paul Louis Victor de Giafferri.
  11. Reign of Napoleon I. 1804 to 1814. France empire.
  12. Reigns of Louis XVIII. and Charles X. 1815 to 1830. Restoration,  Romanticism
  13. Fashion in the Reign of Philippe. 1830 to 1848. Victorian era. Romanticism fashion.
  14. The Second Republic. 1848 -1851. Victorian era. “Second Rococo”.
  15. The use of the Corset in the reign of Louis XVI.
  16. Ladies hat styles from 1776-1790 by Rose Bertin.
  17. Fashion under the  French revolution 1789 to 1802.
  18. Paris fashion 1793 to 1795. French revolution.
  19. The Execution of the King Louis XVI.
  20. The Execution of Marie-Antoinette.
  21. The Incroyables and Muscadins. The French directory dandies.
  22. Les Incroyables et Merveilleuses. “The Directoire Style” between 1795–1804.
  23. Nymphs and Merveilleuses. By Octave Uzanne.
  24. Fashion in Paris after the Revolution. By Octave Uzanne. 1796-1800.
  25. Portraits by people during the French Revolution
  26. The Gallery of Fashion. by Nikolaus von Heideloff, London.
  27. Comparison of the French and English modes. 1808 to 1815
  28. The Salon of Madame Récamier during the French Revolution.
  29. The Salons of Paris before the French Revolution.
  30. Caraco à la francaise in 1786.
  31. The Evolution of Modern Feminine Fashion 1786.
  32. Fashion in Paris and London, 1780 to 1788.
  33. Historic hairstyles from Ancient times to the Empire.
Fashion in Paris and London, 1780 to 1788.
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French Revolution Costume
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Modes et Costumes Historiques • Rococo fashion