The Execution of Louis XVI. French Revolution.


La Promenade Publique. Philibert Louis Debucourt.

The Public Promenad 1792 by Philibert Louis Debucourt

The Execution of King Louis XVI

An act of clemency — Two Parties in the Chambers and Government – The Royal Family in the Temple — Execution of the King — Festival to celebrate the anniversary of his death — The Queen, and Madame Elisabeth, go to the scaifold – The Conciergerie prison — Death of the Dauphin — A strange caprice of fashion. The “telescope portrait” — The Princess exchanged; reception at the Court of Austria — “The only man of the family.”

French King Louis XVI Portrait. French Revolution History. Costumes and Fashion.

Portrait Louis XVI. Heliogravure by F. Jemkins.

An act of clemency

AMONG the earliest acts of the newly established Directoire was one of clemency and justice, which cannot but reflect credit on the spirit of moderation and generosity to fallen foes animating at any rate some of their number—the release of the unhappy and long-suffering Princesse Royale, daughter of Louis XVI. The Government was overwhelmed, as may well be, during these first months of its power, with a hundred matters of first-rate importance and vital urgency. Amongst these were especially pressing the crucial question of war or peace, the policy to be adopted towards the émigrés, both those actually beyond the frontiers and the equally numerous class of those declared such by law though still residing in France, and towards the Church and its priests, and last but not least, the rescue of the finances of the Republic from the almost hopeless impasse into which they had drifted. All these problems were clamouring for solution; but nevertheless the Directors found time to arrange for and carry out the long-delayed release of “la fille Capet.”

Tennis court oath. le serment du Jeu de paume. French revolution costumes. Constituent National Assembly

Constituent National Assembly. Tennis court oath led by Jean-Sylvain Bailly, June 20, 1789

Joseph François Foullon. Controller-General of Finances. French Revolution History. 18th century costumes

Death of Joseph François Foullon 22 July 1789. Controller-General of Finances under Louis XVI 1789.

Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc. Riot at the Tuileries Gardens in July 1789. French Revolution History. 18th century costumes

Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc 1751-1825, defends the royal palace in the riot at the Tuileries Gardens in July 1789

Attack on the Bastille. Murder of Marquis de Launay. French Revolution History. 18th century costumes

Attack on the Bastille. Murder of Bernard-René Jourdan, Marquis de Launay July 14, 1789

The Women's March on Versailles. Stanislas-Marie Maillard. French Revolution History. 18th century costumes

Arrival of parisian women in Versailles, known as The Women’s March on Versailles of 5th October 1789. Stanislas-Marie Maillard accompanied the women who marched to Versailles

The October March. The Women's March on Versailles. French Revolution History. 18th century costumes

Louis XVI receives parisian women in Versailles on 5 October 1789

Two Parties in the Chambers and Government

It was not, however, without a struggle that even this tardy deed of mercy was decided on, the more violent party being still strongly opposed to any mitigation of the rigorous treatment of the last of the hated Royal Family. ” The Directory and the Corps Législatif were divided into two parties, the Constitutionalists and the Revolutionists. The Constitutional party was composed of nearly all the two hundred and fifty members of the new Third and of many members the right of the Convention, of two Directors, Carnot and Letourneur, and of the majority of the magistrates and other officials elected in 1795. It had the support of the electors and of the great mass of the people. Its adherents could consequently hope in two or at most in three years’ time to be in a majority in the Legislative Body, and consequently to replace the existing Directors, as they retired, by members of their own party. In fact, nothing but fair play was needed to make them masters of the future of France. By the opposite party the Constitutionalists were vehemently accused of enmity to the Republic and of open or concealed royalism; and this accusation was the ground of their eventual destruction, of the failure of the Constitution and the consequent fall of the Republic… . The Revolutionary party was composed of three members of the Directory — Rewbell, Larevellière-Lépaux, and Barras — of most of the Ministers, notably the most powerful of them, Merlin of Douai, of the Commissaries and other officials appointed by the Directory, and of the majority of the ex-members of the Convention in the Corps Législatif.

Maximilien Robespierre. French lawyer and politician. Portrait French Revolution History

Maximilien Marie Isidore de Robespierre 1758-1794. French lawyer and politician. As a leading member of the Jacobins, he was partly responsible for the Reign of Terror of 1793-94. The first phase of the French Revolution was decisively influenced by him.

Portrait Bertrand Barère. French Revolution History. 18th century costume. French politician. Freemason

Bertrand Barère de Vieuzac 1755-1841. French politician, freemason and influential member of the department of Hautes-Pyrénées in the National Convention.

Their policy was to continue the war, to maintain the law of October 25 (1795—law against the priests), and generally to uphold the revolutionary system of government. Their guiding motive was not so much revolutionary enthusiasm or political principle as self-preservation; they desired to prolong the era of persecution and ostracism as the surest way of saving their own heads from peril; as regicides they dreaded the return of the monarchy, as Terrorists they feared the vengeance of the people.”

École Militaire 7th arrondissement of Paris, France. Champs-de-Mars. Military school

École Militaire, Champs-de-Mars Paris France

Paris Pont Neuf in 18th century

Pont Neuf

Paris Hôtel de Ville. Place de Grève.

Hôtel de Ville, City hall of Paris. Place de Grève c. 1780.

Hotel de Ville Paris. Pont d'Arcole by William Turner. Paris Architecture. 4e Arrondissement.

Hotel de Ville Paris. Pont d’Arcole by William Turner.

The Palais-Royal. Maison de Bourbon-Orléans. Palace of the Duke of Orleans. Philippe Égalité, Palais de l'Égalité

The Palais-Royal. Palace of the Duke of Orleans called Philippe Égalité, Palais de l’Égalité.

The Palais-Royal. Palace of the Duke of Orleans called Philippe Égalité, Palais de l'Égalité.

The Palais-Royal. Palace of the Duke of Orleans.

1776 Place Royale, Place Louis XV. 1792 Place de la Révolution. 1795 Place de la Concorde.

1776 Place Royale, Place Louis XV. 1792 Place de la Révolution. 1795 Place de la Concorde.

Court of the Louvre. 18th century. Paris architecture. Palais du Louvre

Court of The Louvre Palace

Champ de Mars. École militaire. French Revolution History. Costumes directoire

Champ de Mars, École militaire.

Palais des Tuileries. Royal and imperial palace in Paris 18th century. French Revolution History.

Palais des Tuileries. Royal and imperial palace in Paris 18th century

Jardin des Tuileries. French Palais des Tuileries. French Revolution History. 18th century

Jardin des Tuileries

Fight at the Tuileries Palace on 20 June 1792. French Revolution costumes history.

Fight at the Tuileries Palace on 20 June 1792.

The mob at the Tuilleries. French Revolution History. Louis XVI. French King.

On June 20th 1792, urged an armed crowd into the Tuileries and demanded the king to withdraw his veto. Instead, he told the applied Group for hours, the Phrygian cap on his head, he will not depart from its decisions.

Marie Antoinette at the Tuileries Palace on 20 June 1792. French Revolution History.18th century costumes

Marie Antoinette with her daughter Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise, Princess Royal, her son Louis Charles de Bourbon and Madame Élisabeth at the Tuileries Palace on 20 June 1792.

The insurrection of 10 August 1792. Attack on the tuileries. French Revolution History.

Attack on the Tuileries Palace. The insurrection of 10 August 1792.

September Massacres. French Revolution History. 18th century costumes

September Massacres 2nd to 7th September 1792

September Massacres 1792. French Revolution History. 18th century costumes

September Massacres 1792

Death of Princess Lamballe. French Revolution History. 18th century costumes. Richard Bentley

Death of Princess Lamballe, Princess Maria Teresa of Savoy-Carignan, in the massacres of September 1792 by Richard Bentley.

Assassination of Jean-Paul Marat by Charlotte Corday. French Revolution History. 18th century costumes

Assassination of Jean-Paul Marat by Charlotte Corday on 13 July 1793

French revolution history. Death of Charles de Bonchamps

Death of Charles de Bonchamps 17. Oktober 1793. Leader of the Insurgency in Anjou.

Though out-voted both in the Chambers and at the Council table of the Directors, where, as we see, they were in a minority of voices of two to three on most of the other and more momentous questions at issue, the Constitutionalists nevertheless succeeded in carrying their point as to the enlargement of the Princesse Royale. After all she was only a girl, and one of no very marked individuality or force of character,— her conduct and bearing throughout the months of weary imprisonment of her father and mother while awaiting trial had been a rather pitiable foil to the heroism and noble self-devotion of her aunt, Madame Elisabeth.

French princess. Élisabeth Philippine Marie Hélène de France. Madame Élisabeth. 18th century costumes. French Revolution History.

French princess Élisabeth Philippine Marie Hélène de France. Madame Élisabeth 1764-1794.

She was the last of her family; King, Queen, and Madame Élisabeth had all died on the scaffold, and the Dauphin had mysteriously disappeared — perished (there is not really much reason for doubting the fact, in spite of a dozen wild stories to the contrary) of neglect and ill-usage, and nothing was to be feared from the sole and helpless survivor. Not the most rabid of the “old Republicans,” the stalwarts of 1789 and 1793, could find much to object against a step which the milder feelings now largely prevailing, if not the considerable reaction in favour of the old regime of which many symptoms were to be observed here and there, almost universally approved.

Palace of the Luxembourg Paris. Jardin du Luxembourg. French Revolution History. Directoire Costume and Fashion

Palace of the Luxembourg Paris

The Royal Family in the Temple.

Marie-Thérèse-Charlotte, Princesse Royale, in later days Duchesse d’Angoulême, had been incarcerated in the gloomy tower of the Temple at the same time as her father, mother, brother, and aunt. The Luxembourg, by the by, had been designated in the first instance by the National Assembly as the King’s place of residence, or shall we say place of confinement, after the 10th August, fatal to Monarchy; but he and his were transferred to the Temple instead “by the all powerful Commune” (that is the new insurrectionary, improvised Municipality of Paris, calling itself  ” Council General of the Commune,” “under pretext that it could not otherwise be answerable for the safety of his person.” “The Luxembourg and safeguard of the Nation could not be got ready: nay, it seems the Luxembourg has too many cellars and issues; no Municipality can undertake to watch it. The compact prison of the Temple, not so elegant indeed, were much safer. To the Temple, therefore! On Monday, 13th day of August 1792, in Mayor Pétion’s carriage, Louis and his sad suspended Household fare thither; all Paris out to look at them… . French Royalty vanishes within the gates of the Temple: these old peaked towers, like peaked Extinguisher or Bonsoir, do cover it up;— from which same Towers, poor Jacques Molay and his Templars were burnt out by French Royalty, five centuries since. Such are the turns of Fate below.”

Le Carreau du Temple. Temple Prison French Revolution History. Rue Eugene Spuller

The Temple

Thence she had seen all that were near and dear one by one taken from her, and for over two years now she had been alone in her prison, and it almost seemed forgotten by the ruthless enemies of Royalty. The first to be summoned away from the little family group in the Temple was the father—always a loving, affectionate parent and a kindly, amiable man, though lacking in so many kingly qualities, and egregiously failing to rise to the level of the critical times and perilous circumstances in which he found himself and the ancient Monarchy of France involved. He had endured, with quiet, dignified patience, nearly six months’ captivity when the end came.

Flight to Varennes. The royal family. Marie Antoinette, Princess Royal, Madame Elisabeth, Louis XVII. French Revolution History Costumes

Flight to Varennes (1791). The royal family was arrested at Varennes-en-Argonne.

Return of the Royal Familie from Varennes. French Revolution History Costumes. Marie Antoinette. Louis XVI. Directoire

Return of the Royal Familie from Varennes arrived on 25 June 1791 in Paris

Louis XVII before the convention. French Revolution History Costumes

Louis XVII before the convention on 11 December 1792

Chrétien-Guillaume de Lamoignon de Malesherbes. Louis XVI . French Revolution costumes history

On 26 December Louis XVI., Raymond de Sèze, François Tronchet and Malesherbes defender of the King delivers Louis XVI the news of his condemnation.

French Revolution History Costumes. Louis XVI execution. Marie Antoinette.

Summoning to the execution. Louis XVI., Marie Antoinette, Princess Royal January 1793

Separation of Louis XVI of his family. French Revolution History Costumes

Separation of Louis XVI of his family. Marie Antoinette and children, Dauphin Louis Charles, Marie-Thérèse Charlotte, Madame Élisabeth the Kings sister. Paris, Temple prison, on January 20, 1793.

“King Louis, now King and Majesty to his own family alone, in their own Prison Apartment alone, has, for months past, been mere Louis Capet and the Traitor Veto with the rest of France. Shut in his Circuit of the Temple, he has heard and seen the loud whirl of things; yells of September Massacres, Brunswick war-thunders dying off in disaster and discomfiture; he passive, a spectator merely; waiting whither it would please to whirl with him. From the neighbouring windows, the curious, not without pity, might see him walk daily, at a certain hour, in the Temple Garden, with his Queen, Sister and two Children, all that now belongs to him on this Earth. Quietly he walks and waits; for he is not of lively feelings, and is of a devout heart. The wearied Irresolute has, at least, no need of resolving now. His daily meals, lessons to his Son, daily walk in the Garden, daily game at ombre or draughts, fill up the day: the morrow will provide for itself.

“The morrow indeed; and yet How? Louis asks. How? France, with perhaps still more solicitude, asks. How? A King dethroned by insurrection is verily not easy to dispose of. Keep him prisoner, he is a secret centre for the Disaffected, for endless plots, attempts and hopes of theirs. Banish him, he is an open centre for them; his royal war-standard, with what of divinity it has, unrolls itself, summoning the world. Put him to death? A cruel questionable extremity that too: and yet the likeliest in these extreme circumstances, of insurrectionary men, whose own life and death lies staked ; accordingly it is said, from the last step of the throne to the first of the scaffold there is short distance.”

Louis XVI last interview. Marie Antoinette, Princess Royal, Madame Elisabeth, Louis XVII. French Revolution History Costumes

Louis XVI last interview. Marie Antoinette, Princess Royal, Kings sister Madame Élisabeth, Louis-Charles, Prince Royal of France

The parting scene with wife and children was grievous indeed. “At half-past eight, the door of the ante-room opened: the Queen appeared first, leading her Son by the hand; then Madame Royale and Madame Élisabeth: they all flung them selves into the arms of the King. Silence reigned for some minutes; interrupted only by sobs. The Queen made a movement to lead his Majesty towards the inner room, where M. Edgeworth (the Abbé Edgeworth, who had come to act as the King’s Confessor) was waiting unknown to them: ‘No,’ said the King, let us go into the dining-room; it is there only that I can see you.’ They entered there; I shut the door of it, which was of glass. The King sat down, the Queen on his left hand, Madame Élisabeth on his right, Madame Royale almost in the front; the young Prince remained standing between his father’s legs. They all leaned towards him, and often held him embraced. This scene lasted an hour and three quarters; during which we could hear nothing; we could see only that always when the King spoke, the sobbing of the Princesses redoubled, continued for some minutes; and that then the King began again to speak.”

Execution of the King Louis XVI.

Louis, on parting with his family, promised to see them again the next day; but, on reaching his room, he felt that the trial would be too much, and, pacing up and down violently, he exclaimed, ‘I will not go!’ This was his last struggle; the rest of his time was spent in preparing for death. The night before the execution he slept calmly. Clery awoke him, as he had been ordered, at five, and received his last instructions. He then communicated, commissioned Clery with his dying words and all he was allowed to bequeath, a ring, a seal, and some hair. The drums were already beating, and the dull sound of travelling cannon, and of confused voices, might be heard. At length Santerre arrived. ‘ You are come for me,’ said Louis; ‘I ask one moment.’ He deposited his will in the hands of the municipal officer, asked for his hat, and said, in a firm tone, ‘Let us go.’

Louis XVI . Madame Élisabeth. Marie Antoinette, Louis XVIII, Princess Royal. French Revolution History costumes.

Last farewell scene with his family on 21 January 1793. Marie Antoinette, the children Louis-Charles and Princess Royal Marie-Thérèse-Charlotte, Madame Élisabeth, the sister of the king Louis XVI

Guillotine. French Revolution History costumes. Execution King Louis XV . Temple

Execution of King Louis XVI . The carriage at the Temple at 9 o’clock, 21 January 1793.

Execution of French King Louis XVI. French Revolution History costumes.

Monday, 21 January 1793. Execution of French King Louis XVI.

The execution of French King Louis XVI. . French revolution history.

Louis XVI., execution.

The execution of Louis XVI. Guillotine. Place de la Révolution. French Revolution History costumes.

The execution of Louis XVI on 21 January 1793 at the Place de la Révolution

French revolution history. Death of Louis XVI.

Death of Louis XVI.

“The carriage was an hour on its way from the Temple to the Place de la Revolution. A double row of soldiers lined the road; more than forty thousand men were under arms. Paris presented a gloomy aspect. The citizens present at the execution manifested neither applause nor regret; all were silent. On reaching the place of execution, Louis alighted from the carriage. He ascended the scaffold with a firm step, knelt to receive the benediction of the priest, who is recorded to have said, ‘Son of St. Louis, ascend to heaven!’ With some repugnance he submitted to the binding of his hands, and walked hastily to the left of the scaffold. ‘ I die innocent,’ said he; ‘I forgive my enemies; and you, unfortunate people …’ Here, at a signal, the drums and trumpets drowned his voice, and the three executioners seized him. At ten minutes after ten he had ceased to live.”

Portrait Antoine Joseph Santerre. French Revolution History. 18th military century costume

Antoine Joseph Santerre 1752-1809. Commander of the National Guard. He led on 10 August 1792 at the Tuileries command and secured on 21 January 1793, the execution of Louis XVI.

Festival to celebrate the anniversary of his death

It may be his death was a political necessity. At any rate, it is hard to see what else the party of the Revolution could have done without gravely compromising their own safety then and thereafter. Nearly four years later, on the establishment of the Directorial government, in 1797, the Convention laid it down as an indispensable condition of eligibility for election as a member of the new Executive that each of the Five chosen as Directors must have been of the majority who voted for the King’s death. Next year, at the beginning of 1798, a resolution was proposed to the Council to the effect that the anniversary of January 21st should be celebrated, and that on that day the members of the two Councils should swear an oath of hatred to Royalty. The intention was by this means to force the Deputies of the new Third to join forces with the Republic, or to speak quite candidly, to embarrass them and put them in a false position… . The resolution was eventually adopted, and the Council of Ancients approved it.

École Militaire Champ de Mars. French Revolution History. 18th century costumes.

École Militaire Champ de Mars

Work on the Champ de Mars. French Revolution History. Federation Day. Bastille Day

Work on the Champ de Mars. On July 14, 1790, the first “Federation Day” celebration (fête de la Fédération), now known as Bastille Day, was held on the Champ de Mars.

The Fête de la Fédération. French Revolution History. 18th century costumes

The Fête de la Fédération of the 14 July 1790. Celebration to commemorate the first anniversary of the Storming of the Bastille and the unity of the French Nation

“The festival was held in the Champ-de-Mars, in presence of the Directors and all the civil and military authorities. Rewbell delivered a discourse. In each of the Councils the President also pronounced one. All the Deputies, even the Royalists, swore hatred to royalty, though some of them were for making additions to the oath by way of easing their consciences, which were rather hard put to it. Thus André, of the Five Hundred, added, ‘and to every species of tyranny.’ The Council, however, ordered that the terms of the oath as prescribed by law must be literally and exactly observed. In the Council of Ancients, Dupont de Nemours, who had all the vivacity of a young man and a caustic wit of his own, supplemented thus: ‘And unfalterating resistance to every sort of tyrants, whatever their number or power.’ There can be no doubt whatever there were not a few Jesuitical oaths taken, oaths with a mental reservation—in other words, false oaths.”

The Queen, and Madame Elisabeth, go to the scaifold

The next to be torn from the unhappy girl’s side was her widowed mother, the Queen Marie-Antoinette. For five months more, after the King’s death, the rest of the bereaved family had been allowed to share their captivity together in the great Tower of the Temple; but on July 1 (1793) the Queen had been removed to another room in a neighbouring part of the prison. Then during the night of July 3, the little Dauphin had been taken from her, to be handed over to the tender mercies of Simon the Cobbler. From that day she never again saw son, daughter, or sister-in-law. Two months later (beginning of September) she was removed, by order of the Convention to the Conciergerie — the old gloomy prison forming part of the vast pile of buildings of the Palais de Justice on the island of the Cité in the heart of Paris — to await her trial at the bar of the Revolutionary Tribunal. “On the second of this month, at three in the morning, a vehicle rolled off, with closed blinds, from the Temple to the Conciergerie.

Prisoner Marie Antoinette arrives at Conciergerie. French Revolution history. Directoire costumes

Marie Antoinette arrives at Conciergerie on 1 August 1793 as Prisoner No. 280.

Within it were two Municipals; and Marie-Antoinette, once Queen of France! There in that Conciergerie, in ignominious dreary cell, she, secluded from children, kindred, friends and hope, sits long weeks; expecting when the end will be.”

The Conciergerie prison of Paris.

Every vestige of the old fabric of the Temple has disappeared. The Great Tower was pulled down in 1811, and a square and market now occupy the site of the ancient fortress of the Knights Templars and scene of the long-drawn agony of the Family of France. But the Conciergerie still exists (the picturesque round towers facing the Quai de l’Horloge form part of it and are familiar to every tourist), and the actual dungeon occupied by the unhappy Queen is shown, now transformed into a chapel. Moreover, the ancient gateway to the prison, the veritable gate and flight of steps by which the Queen—and how many other victims of the Revolution!— entered, and before which Sanson’s tumbrils stood waiting on the fatal morning of October 16th, 1793, is still there, though few visitors to Paris, or indeed residents, are aware of the fact.

Conciergerie Women`s Court. French Revolution history. Marie Antoinette

Conciergerie Cour des Femmes – Women’s Courtyard.

“Under an arched gateway, behind heavy iron bars, to the right of the main entrance of the Palais de Justice, cowering beneath the masses of the monumental stairway that leads up to the great doors, lies a little square courtyard, damp and dark, sunk below the level of the Cour du Mai, with which it communicates by nine steps. Only a few years ago the broad flags with which it was laid were still covered with the greenish coating of moss and lichen, and rimmed with the stains of moisture and mildew—the sort of paving we see in deserted cloisters; it was a gloomy, almost funereal place. A low door, dingy, worm-eaten and dilapidated, guarded by double iron gates, half eaten away with rust, could be discerned in the background, always hermetically closed. An iron balustrade, dating from Louis XVI, bordered the well-worn steps. The few who were aware what awful tragedies this courtyard, so rich in terrible associations, had witnessed, sometimes came with hearts of ruth and respect to indulge in long daydreams within the stone walls of the narrow enclosure.

Marie Antoinette. Prison Conciergerie. French Revolution history. Directoire costumes

Marie Antoinette at Conciergerie 1793

“In the gloomy days of the Terror it was the wicket of the Conciergerie, and the only one at that time!
“Then, at half-past nine in the morning, the hour of the opening of the Revolutionary Tribunal, the top of the wall overlooking this sunk courtyard would be lined by a howling, vociferating crowd of men and women—more women than men, who came, as to a play, to take station on the steps of the great stairway of the Palais, which afforded so convenient a coign of vantage for viewing the drama that was daily enacted at the prison gate… .
“But the great sensation of the day was in the afternoon, towards half-past three, when the tumbrils arrived. How many to-day? was the question; and great was the disappointment when only two or three drew up… .
“About four o’clock, the condemned filed out one by one through the grey door… . All the condemned of all parties, Marie-Antoinette no less than Mme. Roland, Charlotte Corday and the Abbesse de Montmorency, Cécile Renaud smiling and the Dubarry sobbing and dishevelled, Danton, Robespierre, the Girondists, the vile Hébert and the virtuous Malesherbes, the Marechal de Noailles and Camille Desmoulins, the bravest, the noblest, the maddest, all trod these flagstones, passed out through that terrible gate.”

Marie Antoinette. Reine de France. Portrait by Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun. Rococo costume and fashion

Marie Antoinette. Reine de France. Portrait by Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun 1788.

The Trial of Marie-Antoinette 1793.

After six weeks’ detention in the Conciergerie, the Queen was summoned to confront her judges.
“On Monday, the Fourteenth of October, 1793, a Cause is pending in the Palais de Justice, in the new Revolutionary Court, such as those old stonewalls never witnessed: the Trial of Marie-Antoinette. The once brightest of Queens, now tarnished, defaced, forsaken, stands here at Fouquier-Tinville’s Judgement bar; answering for her life… . To such changes of human fortune what words are adequate? Silence alone is adequate. …

French revolution history costumes. Recreation. Saint-Lazare Prison Paris. Hubert Robert. French revolution history costumes

Recreation at the Saint-Lazare Prison by Hubert Robert 1733-1808

Marie Antoinette Listening to the Act of Accusation. French Revolution history costumes

Marie Antoinette Listening to the Act of Accusation the Day Before Her Trial by Edward Matthew Ward on 13 October 1793

Condemnation of French Queen Marie Antoinette. French revolution history costumes

Condemnation of Marie Antoinette

Condemnation of Marie Antoinette. History French Revolution Costumes

Condemnation of Marie Antoinette on 14 October 1793

Marie Antoinette. Revolutionary Tribunal. French Revolution history. Directoire costumes

Marie Antoinette at Revolutionary Tribunal on 14 October 1793

Marie Antoinette at Revolutionary Tribunal. French revolution costumes.

Marie Antoinette at Revolutionary Tribunal

Emprisonnement Queen Marie Antoinette, Conciergerie, Widow Capet, French Revolution history costumes

Emprisonnement Queen Marie Antoinette at Conciergerie. The Widow Capet, by Alexander Kucharsky

At four o’clock on Wednesday morning, after two days and two nights of interrogating, jury-charging, and other darkening of counsel, the result comes out sentence of death. ‘Have you anything to say?’ The accused shook her head, without speech. Night’s candles are burning out; and with her too Time is finishing, and it will be Eternity and Day. This Hall of Tinville’s is dark, ill-lighted except where she stands. Silently she withdraws from it, to die.” “Few minutes after the Trial ended, the drums were beating to arms in all Sections; at sunrise the armed force was on foot, cannons getting placed at the extremities of the Bridges, in the Squares, Crossways, all along from the Palais de Justice to the Place de la Révolution. By ten o’clock, numerous patrols were circulating in the Streets; thirty thousand foot and horse drawn up under arms.

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Next: Page The Execution of Marie-Antoinette.

Related Gallery: Portraits by people during the French Revolution

Excerpt from the book: the days of the directoire, BY ALFRED ALLINSON. WITH A NOTE UPON THE COSTUME OF THE PERIOD BY JOHN COLBY ABBOTT. (Illustrated with pictures of the French Revolution period)


Louis XV., Louis XVI., Baroque, Rococo, French revolution, Directoire, Regency, Empire, Georgian

 Louis XV. , Louis XVI., Baroque, Rococo, Directoire, French Revolution, Regency, Empire.

  1. The French Fashion History.
  2. Reign of Louis XIV. 1643 to 1715
  3. The Reign of Louis XV. 1715 to 1774.
  4. Reign of Louis XVI. 1780 to 1789.
  5. The French Republic 1789 to 1802.
  6. Reign of Napoleon I. 1804 to 1814.
  7. The use of the Corset in the reign of Louis XVI.
  8. The influence of Marie Antoinette on fashion 1774 to 1780.
  9. Ladies hat styles from 1776-1790 by Rose Bertin.
  10. Fashion under the  French revolution 1789 to 1802.
  11. Paris fashion 1793 to 1795. French revolution.
  12. The Execution of Marie-Antoinette.
  13. The Incroyables and Muscadins. The French directory dandies.
  14. Les Incroyables et Merveilleuses. “The Directoire Style” between 1795–1804.
  15. Nymphs and Merveilleuses. By Octave Uzanne.
  16. Fashion in Paris after the Revolution. By Octave Uzanne. 1796-1800.
  17. Portraits by people during the French Revolution
  18. The Gallery of Fashion. by Nikolaus von Heideloff, London.
  19. Comparison of the French and English modes. 1808 to 1815
  20. The Salon of Madame Récamier during the French Revolution.
  21. The Salons of Paris before the French Revolution.
  22. Caraco a´la francaise in 1786.
  23. The Evolution of Modern Feminine Fashion 1786.
  24. Fashion in Paris and London, 1780 to 1788.
  25. Historic hairstyles from Ancient times to the Empire.
[sitecreator show=”19″] Books:

  • The French Revolution: A Document Collection by Laura Mason
  • Singing the French Revolution: Popular Culture and Politics, 1787-1799
  • Louis and Antoinette by Cronin, Vincent
  • The Days of the French Revolution by Hibbert, Christopher
  • King’s Trial: Louis XVI Versus the French Revolution
  • The French Revolution: A Document Collection
  • Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution by Simon Schama
  • Regicide and Revolution: Speeches at the Trial of Louis XVI by Michael Walzer.