Category Archives: Spain

THE story of Catalina de Erauso.

Catalina de Erauso alias Francisco Loyola was a Basque noblewoman who lived as a man for several decades ("The nun lieutenant").
Catalina de Erauso (Engraved from her portrait by Pacheco, 1630.)

Catalina de Erauso alias Francisco Loyola (* 1592 in Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain; † 1650 in Cuitlaxtla, New Spain, today Mexico) was a Basque noblewoman who lived as a man for several decades (“The nun lieutenant”).

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Spanish warriors, jongleurs, minstrels in the 11th century.

Spanish warriors,armour, 11th century,middle ages,medieval,illustration,Henry Shaw,Anglo-Norman soldiers

Spanish warriors in armour, 11th century.

Spanish warriors from a MS. of the end of the eleventh century

ornamented initial letters, E,Drop-cap, Medieval manuscript, 10th century, Anglo-Saxon, Norman

Ornamented initial letter E

EVERY step which we trace back in the history of the nations of Europe brings us nearer to a uniformity of costume. Fashions in dress did not begin to go through that quick vicissitude of change which characterizes modern times, till towards the thirteenth century. We can trace little variation in the dress of the Anglo-Saxons during the whole period of their history, and not much between that of the Anglo-Saxons and the Franks.

As people became more distinctly separated from each other by national jealousies, and long and obstinate wars, the new fashions adopted in one country were more slowly communicated to another, and thus the similarity of costume becomes separated by distance of date; while some countries became so entirely estranged from each other during a long period, that the resemblance of costume and the simultaneous variation was altogether lost.

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