The Saxon states in this island have usually been designated a heptarchy, or seven governments; and described “the Saxon Heptarchy in England.” This appellation has probably arisen from the custom of identifying the kingdoms of Bernicia and Deira with that of Northumbria; which latter state did, however, contain these two kingdoms when they fell under the dominion of one monarch.
The Saxon kingdoms were not confined to the territory now called England, but extended as far north as the Firth of Forth.
Hengist founded the Kingdom of Kent anno 455. This was the first Saxon monarchy in Britain. Ella that of Sussex anno 490; at which period we have a Duarchy. By the foundation of the Kingdom of Wessex in the year 519 by Cerdic, a Triarchy existed. The erection of the Kingdom of the East Saxons by Erchinwin, anno 527, made a Tetrarchy. The existence of the East Anglian State, about the same period formed a Pentarchy. The foundation of the Kingdom of Bernicia by Ida, anno 547, formed a Heæarchy. Ella, or Alia, having conquered the British Kingdom of Deira in the year 559, a Heptarchy was formed. And upon the erection of the Mercian Kingdom in the year 586 by Crida, the Saxon States in Britain presented an Octarchy.
The Anglo-Saxon Octarchy existed, with interruptions, 84 years, viz. from ad. 586 to 670. Matthew of Westminster, narrating the events of the years 585 and 586, says, that eight kings reigned in Britain, viz. in Kent, in Sussex, in Wessex, in Mercia, in Essex, in East Anglia, in Deira, and in Bernicia. ( “Regnum Merciorum initium sumpsit, quod primus omnium Creodda tenuit. Inchoata sunt ergo hoc tempore omnia Anglorum sive Saxonum regna quæ octo numerantur.”)
Deorna (Saxon), Deira (Latin), Deifyr (British); founded by Ella anno 559. This state was bounded on the north by the Tyne, and on the South by the Humber; it contained the county of Durham and part of Yorkshire.*
Myrc-Rice, or Myrcena-Rice (Saxon), Mercia (Latin), probably from its bordering on the free Britons of the West, of whom it formed the frontier or march (marc, mere, mark, limit). Crida founded this kingdom anno 586. Itcontained the counties of Lincoln, Nottingham, Derby, Chester, Stafford, Salop, Worcester, Warwick, Northampton, Rutland, Leicester, Buckingham, Bedford, Oxford, Gloucester, Hereford, Huntingdon, and part of Hertford.**
The boundaries of the Danish Kingdom, as settled by Alfred and Godrun in 878, were, on the south, the Thames and Lea to its source; on the west, the Watling Street to the Ouse. This kingdom contained the counties of Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambridge, Essex, part of Hertfordshire, part of Bedfordshire, and a little of Huntingdonshire.
* The extent of the kingdoms of Bernicia and Deira to the west, or inland, is not very distinctly marked. They were bounded on the west by the British kingdoms of, Reged, which is supposed to have been situate in the forests of South Scotland; Strath-clyde, and ” The Terra Cumbrorum,” which included the modern county of Cumberland, together with its appendages, or dismemberments, Lancashire, and Westmoreland. Elmet was also a British principality, which existed north of the Humber in the neighbourhood of Leeds.— Rise and Progress of the English Commonwealth, part i.p.426, note 18. Ib.pp. 434, 435. Camden, 711.
** Camden’s Britannia. Speed’s Theatre of the Empire of Great Britain.
ARMS OF THE ANGLO-SAXON KINGS
Speed’s Theatre of Great Britain. MS. in Heralds’ College marked L 14. Divi Britannici.
1. The Kingdom of Kent.— Azure, a horse saliant Argent.
2. The Kingdom of Sussex.— Azure, six martlets, three, two, and one, Or.
3. The Kingdom of Wessex.— Azure, a cross patonce between four martlets Or.
4. The Kingdom of Essex.— Gules, three scimetars fesswise Argent, pomels and hilts Or.
5. The Kingdom of East Angles.— Azure,three eastern crowns, two and one, Or.
6. The Kingdom of Northumbria.— Azure, a cross Or between four lions rampant Argent.
7. The Kingdom of Mercia.— Azure, a saltire Or.
8. Egbert King of Wessex.— Azure, a cross patonce.
9. Ethelwulph King of Wessex.— Ermine, on a bend Sable three cinquefoils Or.
10. Ethelbald King of Wessex.— Per saltire Or and Azure, four roundels counterchanged.
11. Ethelbert King of Wessex.— Azure, a cross patee Or.
12. Ethelred King of Wessex Or, a cross flory Azure.
13. Alfred “the Great” King of Wessex.— Checquey Or and Gules, on a chief Sable, a lion passant of the first.
14. Edward “the Elder” King of Wessex.— Azure, across patonce between four ducal coronets Or.
15. Athelstan King of England.— Per saltire Gules and Azure, a cross boutonné surmounted by a ducal coronet in chief Or, and in base a bezant.
16. Edmund the “Elder” King of England.— Azure, three ducal coronets in pale Or.
17. Edred King of England.— Vert, a cross patée fitché Argent, in the dexter quarter our Lady crowned, holding in her dexter arm the infant Jesus, in her sinister a sceptre, all Or; round both heads circles of glory of the last.
18. Edwyn King of England.— Azure, a cross patonce Or.
19. Edgar King of England.— Azure, a cross patée between four martlets Or.
20. Edward “the Martyr” King of England.— Azure, a cross patée between four martlets, and in base a fifth, Or.
21. Ethelred King of England.— Or, a cross potent fitche Azure.
22. Edmund “Ironside” King of England.— Azure, a cross patonce between four martlets Or.
23. Canute the Dane.— Quarterly, 1st and 4th Gules, a lion rampant ducally crowned supporting a Danish battle axe Or; 2nd and 3rd, Gules, a wyvern, wings expanded Or. Hardicanute— bore the same arms as Canute his father.
24. Harold I.King of England. Argent, on a cross patée Gules a lion passant guardant of the field.
25. Edward “the Confessor” King of England.— Azure, a cross patonce between four martlets, and in base a fifth, Or.
26. Harold II. King of England.— Gules, semée of cross crosslets, two bars Or, six leopards’ faces, three, two, and one, of the last.
DERIVATION OF THE NAMES OF SOME OF THE COUNTIES IN ENGLAND.
Northumberland.— The Kingdom of Northumbria having ended, and being divided into provinces, the country between the Tweed and Tyne retained the designation of the ancient kingdom, of which it once formed a part. It was written Northan-humbraland, and the inhabitants Northan-hymbra-menn.
Cumberland.— The name of the ancient inhabitants of this province was Kumbri, or Kambri. Carlisle was called Caer-luel. It was called Cumbra-land, the land of the Cambrians; for to this part of the kingdom the Britons retired upon the landing of the Saxons in the north.
Westmorland.— This county was called West-moringa-land, or the land of the western mountains. Cheshire.— In this county is Wirheale. Camden, in describing this district, says, ” From the city of Chester there runneth out a chersonese in the sea, inclosed on one side with the æstuary Dee, and on the other with the river Mersey; we call it Wirall; the Welsh, because it is a corner, Killgury. This was all heretofore a desolate forest, and not inhabited (as the natives say); but King Edward disforested it. Now it is well furnished with towns.”
Devonshire.— This county was called by the British Duffneynt, that is, deep valleys.
Cornwall.— The British name was Kernaw, Kern, horns. This county contains many promontories, which run out into the sea like horns. The Saxons called the inhabitants Corn-wealas.
Berkshire.— Bearwickscyre (Saxon). This county derives its name from Berroc, a wood where box grew in great abundance.
Surrey.— The Saxons called this Sudrea, from sud, south, and rea, a river, because it lay south of the Thames.
Sussex, Sudseax (Saxon).— Southsaxons. Near Bramber in this county is Cissbury Hill, on which are the remains of a very extensive fortification. It was, no doubt, the strong hold of Cissa.
Buckinghamshire.— This county abounded with beech-trees, in Saxon Backen. The Chiltern Hills in this shire derive their name from the soil, cylt or chilt, in Saxon chalk.
Middlesex.— Middle-saxons; because the inhabitants dwelt between the South-Saxons, East-Saxons, West-Saxons, and Mercians.
Norfolk.— North-folk; Saxon, Nordfolc, as distinguished from the people of Suffolk, called Sud-folc, or South-folk.
Rutlandshire.— Roteland (Saxon); derives its name from the colour of the earth, which is red. Roet or rud, Saxon for red.
Worcestershire.— The people of this county were called by Bede, before it was divided, Wiccii. The region called Wicca, containing three hundred hides of land, formed part of this shire. The Welsh Marches lay between the Severn and Offa’s Dyke. They contained part of the counties of Chester, Salop, Hereford, Worcester, and Gloucester. As long as the Welsh maintained their independence, this territory was guarded with great jealousy by noblemen, deputed by the King, who were styled “Marchiones Marchiæ Walliæ,” “Marquesses of the Marches of Wales.” We also read of Lords Marchers.
Chronology of the Anglo-Saxons.
449. Hengist and Horsa, two brothers, arrive in Kent, and land at Ebbs-fleet, near Richborough, in the Isle of Thanet. Horsa is slain in a battle between the Saxons and Britons, headed by the two sons of Gwrtheym, Guortemir and Categirn, at the Ford of the Eagles, now Ailesford in Kent.
455. Hengist founds the Kingdom of Kent.
457. Hengist defeats the Britons at Crayford.
477. Ella lands at Cymenes ora in Sussex, with his three sons, and drives the Britons into the great wood, which stretched from the south of Kent into Sussex and Hants. (The Weald of Kent was anciently 120 miles long towards the west, and 30 broad from
north to south. This wilderness was inhabited only by deer and hogs. The Saxons called this forest Andredes-weald and Andredes-leage.
490. Ella founds the Kingdom of Sussex.
495. Cerdic lands on the southern coasts, and contends with the Britons for twenty-four years.
514. Stuff and Wihtgar, nephews of Cerdic, land.
519. Cerdic and his son Cynric found the Kingdom of Wessex, after a defeat of the Britons at Cerdicesford, now Charford in Hampshire.
527. About this time the Saxons land in East Anglia.
530. Cerdic and his son invade the Isle of Wight, which is given to Stuff and Wightgar. The Saxons land in Essex.
547. Ida lands in the country between the Tweed and Firth of Forth, where he founds the Kingdom of Bernicia.
552. The Britons are defeated at Searobyrig by Cynric.
556. Cynric is victorious over the Britons at Beranbirig.
559. Ella founds the Kingdom of Deira.
568. Ethelbert, King of Kent, invades Wessex. He is defeated by Ceaulin, King of Wessex, at Wimbledon. This was the first battle between the Saxons.
584. Ceaulin, on the death of Cissa, invades the Kingdom of Sussex, which he annexes to Wessex.
586. The Kingdom of Mercia is founded by Crida.
591. Ceolric, the nephew of Ceaulin, defeats his uncle at Wodnesberg in Wilts.
596. Augustin arrives in Kent, and resides at Canterbury, the metropolis of that kingdom. He introduces Christianity.
604. Augustin died this year. He sent Mellitus and Justus to introduce Christianity into Essex. Mellitus became the first archbishop of Canterbury in 617.
614. Cynegils and Cwichelm defeat the Britons at Beamdrine.
617. Ethelfrith, King of Bernicia, seizes Deira, and expels Edwin. He is soon afterwards defeated by Redwald, King of the East Angles, on the banks of the Idel in Nottinghamshire.
625. Edwin, King of Deira, escapes assassination.
628. Penda attacks Cynegils and Cwichelm at Cirencester, and after a battle, makes a treaty.
633 Edwin, King of Deira, defeats Cadwallon, King of North Wales, at Widdington,near Morpeth. Penda, King of Mercia, joins his forces to Cadwallon, and routs Edwin on Hatfield Chase, in Yorkshire, who is slain.
634. Fourteen battles were fought this year between Cadwallon and the Northumbrians.
652. The Britons are defeated at Bradanford on the Avon, by
655. Penda, King of Mercia, is slain in battle with Oswy, King of Northumbria. Cenwalch, King of Wessex, defeats the Britons at Pen in Somersetshire.
664. A pestilence spread over Britain this year.
683. Ecgfrid, King of Northumbria, invades Ireland, but is obliged to retreat.
684. Ecofrid is slain fighting with the Picts at Drumnechtan; his body was conveyed to Icolmkill or St.Columba, and there buried.
684. Ceadwalla attacks the kingdom of Wessex, of which he possesses himself in 686. Mollo, the brother of Ceadwalla, ravages Kent. He is burnt in a cottage with twelve soldiers.
685. Ecgfrid, King of Northumbria, conquers the kingdom of Cumbria from the Britons, and lands near the Ribble.
694. The kingdom of Kent pays a mulct of 30,000 marks of gold in satisfaction for the death of Mollo.
710. Ina, King of Wessex, defeats Geraint, the British King of Cornwall.
715. Ina and Ceolred, King of Mercia, fight at Wodnesburgh. Ina rebuilds the Abbey of Glastonbury.
726. Ethelbald, King of Mercia, founds the Abbey of Croyland.
737. Ethelbald, King of Mercia, conquers Northumbria.
743. Ethelbald and Cuthred, King of Wessex, defeat the Welsh at Ddefawdan.
Cuthred defeats Ethelbald at Binford in Oxfordshire.
752. Cuthred defeats Ethelbald at Binford in Oxfordshire.
754. This year Canterbury was burnt.
774. Offa, King of Mercia, attacks the Hestingi, a people who inhabited Hastings, Pevensey, &c. in Sussex.
777. Offa conquers Kent, and defeats Cynewulf, King of Wessex, at Bensington. The Abbeys of St. Alban and Bath are founded by Offa.
787. The Danes land in England.
798. London is burnt this year, with many of its inhabitants.
823. Egbert, King of Wessex, defeats Beornwulf, King of Mercia, at the battle of Wilton, and unites Kent and Essex to Wessex.
824. A severe cold winter, destroys both men and animals.
827. Egbert, King of Wessex, subdues Mercia and Northumbria.
828. Egbert overruns North Wales.
832. The Danes invade and ravage the Isle of Sheppey. The Danes defeat Egbert at Charmouth.
835. Egbert defeats the Danes and Cornish Britons at Hengston in Cornwall.
851. The Northmen winter in the Isle of Sheppey; and in the following Spring plunder Canterbury and London. They march into Mercia and defeat Bertulph; but are themselves defeated by Ethelwulph.
853. Ethelwulph and Burrhed invade Wales and penetrate into Anglesey. The Northmen gain a victory in the Isle of Thanet.
855 Ethelwulph, with the sanction of his Witena-gemot, or meeting of chiefs, made the donation to the church which is usually construed to be the grant of its tithes. This year, Ethelwulph went to Rome, where he remained a year making presents to the Pope. He rebuilt the Saxon school which Ina had founded.
856. Ethelbald revolts against his father Ethelwulph, who consents to his retaining Wessex; himself governing the Eastern Provinces.
860. The Northmen land and approach Winchester; but are expelled.
864. The Northmen winter in the Isle of Thanet.
867. Ella King of Northumbria, and Osbert his rival, unite their forces against the Northmen— both are slain at York on 12th April. A great dearth this year.
868. Burrhed, King of Mercia, solicits the assistance of Ethelbert, King of Wessex, who marches against the Danes. A treaty is made at Nottingham, upon which the Danes retire to York.
869. A great famine happened this year.
870. The Danes leave York, and land in Lincolnshire, where they commit great devastations; they destroy the monastery of Bardney, and slay the monks; are opposed by Earl Algar and Osgot the sheriff. The earl is slain. The Danes destroy the Abbeys of Croyland and Ely. The Danes defeat the East Angles at Thetford.
870. The Danes invade Wessex, and seize Reading. They are defeated at Inglefield, near Reading, by Earl Ethelwulph.
870. Four days afterwards, Ethelred and Alfred, Kings of Wessex, attack the Danes in Reading without success, when Earl Ethelwulph is slain. Four days after the last engagement, the Saxons renew the attack at Æscedun, or the Ash-tree Hill, where they rout the Danes with great slaughter. Fourteen days afterwards, the Danes, collecting their forces, defeat the Kings of Wessex at Basing. Two months after the last battle, the Danes defeat the Saxons at Merton, in Berkshire, where Ethelred is slain.
871. The Danes attack the Saxons at Wilton, and are victorious. Alfred makes peace with the Danes. They retire from his dominions.
874. The Danes march from Northumbria, and conquer Mercia. They set up Ceolwulf as King of Mercia. The Danes conquer Bernicia.
England was at this period divided between the West Saxons and the Danes.
876. The Danes surprise the Castle of Wareham. Alfred makes a second treaty of peace with the Danes.
877. Alfred makes a third treaty with the Danes.
878. The Danes enter Wiltshire. Alfred becomes a fugitive, and retires to the Isle of Athelney, in Somersetshire, where he lives with Denulf, a cowherd, who became Bishop of Winchester, and died anno 909. Ubbo, the Danish chief, attacks Devonshire. After a seclusion of six months, Alfred collects his forces at Ethandune, where he defeats the Danes with great loss. Alfred persuades Godrun, the Dane, to embrace Christianity. Godrun retires into East Anglia.
884. The Danes make another descent, and besiege Rochester. Alfred advances with his army, and raises the siege.
890. Godrun, the Danish monarch of East Anglia, dies. A large fleet of Northmen enters the Thames under Hastings, who winters at Fulham. In the Spring he went to Flanders.
893. The Danes land in Romney Marsh. Hastings appears in the Thames, and lands at Milton, in Kent.
894. Alfred defeats Hastings at Farnham, in Surrey,and drives his army into Middlesex and Essex. The Danes entrench themselves in the Isle of Mersey, in Essex. Hastings persuades the Anglo-Danes to send ships to the Channel, and attack the Saxons in Devonshire. Hastings leaves the Isle of Mersey, and marches into Mercia. He is blockaded in his camp on the Severn, but retreats with great loss into Essex. Hastings marches out of Essex and seizes Chester, which he fortifies. Alfred besieges him for two days. He leaves Chester; ravages North Wales; and returns through Northumbria and East Anglia, to the Isle of Mersey.
895. Hastings conveys his ships up the Lea, and builds a fortress twenty miles above London.
896. Hastings withdraws his forces from England.
897. About this time a pestilence afflicted the kingdom for three years.
901. Ethelwold, one of the sons of Ethelred, pretended to the crown on the death of Alfred. He fled to York, and became King over the Danes. He was afterwards slain in battle fighting against the West Saxons.
910. Edward, King of Wessex, invades Northumbria. Defeats the Danes at Wodensfield. The Danes possess the north of England, from the Humber to the Tweed; and the eastern parts, to the Ouse. Edward builds a line of fortresses, to protect his frontier.
918. The Northmen, from Armorica, (Brittany,) make a descent on England, but are expelled.
920. On the death of Ethelfleda, Queen of the Mercians, Edward incorporated Mercia with Wessex.
924. Several Welsh Kings submit to Edward.
934. Athelstan, having added Northumbria to his dominions, invades Scotland.
934. Anlaf, the son of Sigtryg, enters the Humber with six hundred and fifteen ships. His troops are defeated at Brunanburh, by Athelstan, who, by this victory, added Northumbria and Wales to his dominion,and became the founder of the English monarchy.
936. Athelstan makes a treaty with Louis IV. King of France.
941. Anlaf, the northern Prince, marches into Mercia, and besieges Tamworth, which he plundered. He defeats King Edmund at Leicester. By virtue of a treaty, Anlaf retains that part of England which is north of Watling Street.
946. Edmund, on the death of Anlaf, recovers Northumbria, and extends his conquests to Cumbria, which he grants to Malcolm, King of Scots, on condition of military service. Edred inseparably annexed Northumbria to his kingdom, and partitioned it out in baronies and counties.
955. Dunstan, commonly called St. Dunstan, Abbot of Glastonbury, introduces the Benedictine Order into England. Elgiva, the Queen of Edwin (Ælfgifu (Elgiva, Algifu) Of Shaftesbury, Queen of England), is barbarously murdered by the Archbishop Odo.
969. Edgar supports the Benedictine Order.
973. Merchants from Saxony, Flanders, and Denmark, begin to trade in England. Edgar commutes the Welsh tribute into three hundred wolves’ heads, in order to extirpate these animals. Edgar causes new coin to be made all over England.
980. The Danish ships plunder Southampton, Thanet, Devon, and Cornwall.
988. St. Dunstan dies.
991. The Danes make a formidable invasion, and attack Ipswich. Their retreat is purchased for £10,000.
991. The kingdom is infested for several years with Danish ships.
1002. Ethelred issues letters to every city, to slay, at an appointed hour, all the Danes.
1010. The Danes possess sixteen counties in England.
1013. Svein, the Dane, asserts his government over all the country north of the Watling Street. He is succeeded by his son Canute.
1016. The Danes, under Canute, defeat the English, and possess a great portion of the kingdom. Canute besieges London. Edmund fights the Danes at Pen,in Dorsetshire. The battle of Brentford, between Edmund and Canute. Edmund defeats the Danes at Otford, in Kent. They retire to the Isle of Sheppey. Edmund is defeated by Canute, at Assandun, in Essex, through the treachery of Edric. Edmund and Canute agree by treaty to divide the kingdom; the latter to reign in the north parts.
1018. Canute exacts £10,500 from London, and £72,000 from the other parts of the kingdom.
1031. Canute marches into Scotland, and subdues Malcolm, and two other kings.
1051. Godwin and his sons rebelling against Edward the Confessor, are outlawed. They quit the kingdom. William, Duke of Normandy, visits Edward. A great dearth happened this year.
1052. Godwin and his son sail into the Thames. He is restored.
1053. Harold invades Wales, which is much depopulated in consequence.
1066. Edward the Confessor dedicates the church of St. Peter, at Westminster, which he had rebuilt. Tostig, the brother of Harold, invades the kingdom, but is expelled by the Earls of Mercia and Northumbria. Haralld Hardrada, King of Norway, and Tostig, invade Northumbria. They are defeated and slain on the 25th Sept.
Oct.14. The battle of Hastings.
AN EXPLANATION OF SOME SAXON NAMES
Æl, Eal, and Al, in compound names, signifies all, or altogether.
Ælwin, a complete conqueror. Aldred, altogether reverend.
Albert, all illustrious. Alfred, altogether peaceful.
Ælf, pronounced ulf, wolph, hulph, hilp, helfe, signify assistance.
Ælfwin, victorious aid.
Ælfgifa, a lender of assistance.
Ard, signifies natural disposition.
Godard, is a divine temper. Reinard,a sincere temper.
Giffard, a bountiful and liberal disposition.
Bernard, a filial affection.
Æthel, Athel, Adel, noble.
Æthelred, noble for council. Æthelbert, eminently noble.
Bert, is the same as bright.
Ecbert, eternally famous or bright. Sigbert, famous conqueror.
Bald, signifies bold. Baldwin, a bold conqueror.
Ethelbald, nobly bold. Eadbald, happily bold.
Ken, and Kin, denote kinsfolk. Kinulph, is help to kindred.
Kinehelm, a protector of his kindred.
Kinburg, the defence of her kindred. Kinric,powerful ink indred.
Cuth, signifies knowledge, skill.
Cuthwin, knowing conqueror. Cuthbert, bright in skill.
Ead and Eadig, signify happiness or blessedness.
Eadward, happy preserver. Eadulph, happy assistance.
Eadgar, happy power. Eadwin,happy conqueror.
Fred, signifies peace. Fredric, powerful or wealthy in peace.
Winfred, victorious in peace. Reinfred, sincere peace.
Gisle, a pledge. Fredgisle, a pledge of peace.
Gislebert, an illustrious pledge.
Helm, denotes defence. Eadhelm, a happy defence.
Sighelm, victorious defence. Berthelm, eminent defence.
Hild, a lord or lady. Hildbert, a noble Lord.
Leof, love. Leofwin, a winner of love. Leofstan, the best beloved.
Rad, Red, Rod. Ethelred, a noble councillor.
Ric, powerful, wealthy. Alfric, altogether strong.
Æthelric, noble, strong, powerful.
Sig, victory. Sigbert, famous for victory.
Stan, most. Æthelstan, most noble. Loefstan, the dearest or most
Mund, peace. Eadmund, happy peace. Æthelmund, noble peace
Ælmund, all peace.
Wi, holy. Wimund, holy peace. Wibert, eminent for sanctity.
Alwi, altogether holy.
Wold, or Waid, a ruler or governor. Bertwold, a famous governor.
Æthelwold, a noble governor.
THE SAXON NAMES OF THE DAYS OF THE WEEK.
Sunnan-dæg, – The Sun’s day, – Sunday.
Monan-dæg, – The Moon’s day, – Monday.
Tiwes-dæg, – Tiw’s day, – Tuesday.
Wodnes-dæg, – Woden’s day, – Wednesday
Thunres-dæg, – Thunre’s day, – Thursday.
Frige-dæg, – Friga’s day, – Friday.
Seternes-dæg, – Seterne’s day, -Saturday.
THE SAXON PLACES OF MEETING WERE,
Witena-gemote, the assembly of the Wise. In this meeting the affairs of the State were discussed.
Folc-gemote, Scire-gemote — a shire meeting.
Burh-gemote,Wic-gemote — a town meeting.
Husting, a council house. Hans-hus, a common public-house.
Gild-hall, a club. Gild-scipe, an association.
Source: Britannia saxonica. A map of Britain during the Saxon octarchy, accompanied by a table shewing the contemporary sovereigns of each state; and the mutations in the Saxon kingdoms: the genelogies of the Anglo-Saxon kings, with chronological notices relative to the Saxon period by George William Collen.
(Merovingian, Carolingian, Frankish, British, Anglo-Saxon, Roman, Celtic, Byzantine, Levante fashion history)
- Frankish Merovingian costume history 4th and 5th century.
- The Frankish dominions in Merovingian times 486-768. Historical atlas.
- Clovis. The Merovingian Dynasty. (French history)
- The Barbarian Invasions. The Migration Period in Europe, 395-527 A. D. Historical atlas.
- The Byzantine Fashion History 5th to 6th century.
- The Carolingian fashion period 752-987. Reign of Charlemagne.
- The Carolingian Fashion Period 987 to 1270.
- Europe in the time of Charles the Great 768 – 814. Historical atlas, Places.
- Ancient British period. Fashion history of England. Bronze age.
- Celt and Roman. History of England 43 BC to 440 AD.
- The Gallic and Gallo-Roman costume period.
- Ancient Roman costume history. B.C. 53 to A.D. 450.
- The Roman Tunica or Greek Chiton.
- The Roman Paenula. The cowl or hood.
- Roman legionary in full armor.
- The Toga and the manner of wearing it.
- Gallic and Gallo-Roman helmets of Celtic warriors.
- Roman Britain. Maps, Places, Tribes. Historical atlas.
- The shields of the Gauls. Clans in the Roman Empire.
- Costume history of the Persians and other Asiatics.
- Collection of ancient costumes Egyptian, Greek, Roman and others.
- On the origin of the pants by Max Marcuse
- Roman, Greece and Egypt. The Corset and the Crinolin fashion history.
- Alfred the Great. The first English king.
- King Harold II. Last Anglo-Saxon king of England.
- Monachism. Monastic costumes history.
- History of costumes from ancient until 19th century (Collection)
- 11th to 13th century. French fashion history.
- 11th to 13th century. German fashion history.
- 11th to 15th century. Caps and Hoods fashion.