Roland at the Battle of Roncesvalles.

Battle, Roncesvalles, Roland, Knight, middle ages, costumes, carolingian

Roland at the Battle of Roncesvalles.

Roland at the Battle of Roncesvalles.

ROLAND, the hero of Pulci’s “Morgante Maggiore,” was the nephew of Charlemagne. As he was leading the rear-guard of Charlemagne’s army through the valley of Roncesvalles, he was attached by the enemy, set all by the traitor Gan. Dreadful was the slaughter of his knights.

“But Roland no sooner saw Uliviero dead than he felt as if he were left alone all the earth, and he teas quite willing to leave it; only be wished that Charlemagne should hear how the case stood before he went, and so he took up the horn and blew it with such force that, at the third blast, it burst in two.
“In spite of all the noise of the battle, the sound of the born broke over it like a voice out of the other world. They say that birds fell dead at it, and that the whole Saracen army drew back in terror.”

Pulci’s “Morgante Maggiore,”
Louis Guesnet, Artist. A. Closs, Engraver

Luigi Pulci 1432 -1484 was an Italian poet, who was encouraged by Lorenzo de ‘Medici. He is mainly known through his romantic epic Il Morgante Maggiore wherein a mockery of Christian dogmas of faith and Christian Crusade ideology is expressed. Based on material from France, the poet tells the story of Roland and Renaud of Montauban (in Italian, Renaldo and Rinaldo), the most famous of Charlemagne’s paladins, in a burlesque manner. The first issue appeared 1483.

The battle of Roncesvalles was a raid by the local Basque population on the rear of a Frankish army under Charlemagne on 15 August 778. He found near the Basque village of Roncesvalles (Orreaga basque, french Roncevaux) instead.
In the following centuries, Roland became the most popular hero of France. In remembrance of the massacre of people Roncesvalles into a gigantic battle was – this at a time when the Christian knights of the West itself went on the crusade to liberate the Holy Land. Charles expedition against the Muslim rulers of Spain was stylized to a favorite crusade – and Roland naturally a Christian martyr.
In the Battle of Hastings in 1066 the Normans were singing a song which celebrates the history of Roland. At the end of the 11th century an epic Chanson de Roland that, the Song of Roland, which is now counted among the masterpieces of epic poetry of the Middle Ages came on in Romansh.

Note:  Electra waits for the return of Orestes.

Source: Character sketches of romance, fiction and the drama by Rev. Ebenezer Cobham Brewer, 1892. A revised American edition of the readers handbook. Edited by Marion Harland.


  1. Europe in the time of Charles the Great 768 – 814.
  2. The Carolingian Fashion Period from 987 to 1270.
  3. Life-size warrior figures in full armor and equipment. 
  4. 11th to 13th century. Medieval clothing in France.
  5. The Knights of the Teutonic Order of Knighthood.
  6. The First Crusade. The Knights Hospitallers.
  7. The Crusades. The Knights Templar.
  8. Middle Ages fashion history in Germany. 11th to 13th century.

Leave a Reply

Auguste Racinet. The Costume History by Françoise Tétart-Vittu.

Racinet's Costume History is an invaluable reference for students, designers, artists, illustrators, and historians; and a rich source of inspiration for anyone with an interest in clothing and style. Originally published in France between 1876 and 1888, Auguste Racinet’s Le Costume historique was in its day the most wide-ranging and incisive study of clothing ever attempted.

Covering the world history of costume, dress, and style from antiquity through to the end of the 19th century, the six volume work remains completely unique in its scope and detail. “Some books just scream out to be bought; this is one of them.” ―

The Fabric of Civilization: How Textiles Made the World Paperback – December 7, 2021
by Virginia Postrel (Author)

From Neanderthal string to 3D knitting, an “expansive” global history that highlights “how textiles truly changed the world” (Wall Street Journal)

Fashionpedia - The Visual Dictionary Of Fashion Design

Fashionpedia - The Visual Dictionary Of Fashion Design

FASHIONPEDIA is a visual fashion dictionary covering all the technical terms from style to material to production with illustrations and infographics. It encompasses rich, extensive information and yet is easy to read. Whether you are an industry insider or a fashion connoisseur, FASHIONPEDIA is all you will ever need to navigate the fashion scene.

Textilepedia. The Complete Fabric Guide.

The Textile Manual is an encyclopaedia of textile information, from material to yarn, from fabric structure to the finishing process. Encompassing practical tips for a range of textiles and detailed visuals, this ultra-accessible manual is the perfect companion for fashion aficionados and aspiring fashion designers.


The Second Carolingian Modelbook: A Collection of Historical Charted Patterns for Needleworkers and Artisans, by Ms Kim Brody Salaza & Alexandra Brody Salazar.

Meticulously researched and annotated, The Second Carolingian Modelbook is a pattern collection for stitchers fascinated by the counted embroidery styles of the 1500s and 1600s.

The Carolingians: A Family Who Forged Europe, by Pierre Riché & Michael Idomir Allen.

Pierre Riché traces the emergence of Europe from the seventh to the early eleventh century, the period that witnessed the rise, fall, and revival of the Carolinian Empire.

Carolingian Cavalryman AD 768–987 (Warrior), by David Nicolle & Wayne Reynolds.

Illuminating a much-neglected area of history, this book shows how the role of cavalry grew in prestige, as the Carolingian armoured horseman gave way to the knight of the early 10th century.

Anvil Of God: Book One of the Carolingian Chronicles, by J. Boyce Gleason.

Based on a true story, Anvil of God is a whirlwind of love, honor, sacrifice, and betrayal that follows a bereaved family's relentless quest for power and destiny.