French crossbowman of the 12th Century. Militia of commons.
Milice des communes, Arbaletrier. XII° Siècle.
Events in the 12th century
1118: In Jerusalem the first spiritual order of knights founded under the name of The poor knights of Christ from the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem. The Knights Templar is a model for other religious foundations with both clerical as well as military character, such as the Hospitallers and the The Knights of the Teutonic Order of Knighthood. The members of the Order of the Knights Templar want to save the pilgrimage routes in the Holy Land and protect the Christian kingdom of Jerusalem.
To 1120, the population of England exceeds 3 million.
1135-1154: English Civil War.
1147-1149: Second Crusade.
1189-1192: Third Crusade.
Richard the Lionheart, Plantagenet (1157-1199) King of England.
1139: Foundation of Portugal.
Around 1180 the first time the windmill appeared in Europe.
Philip II (1180-1223) used around 1190 for the first time the title of King of France (Roi de France, Franciae Rex, Rex Franciae rare).
From the book: Histoire de l’Armée et de tous les régiments depuis les premiers temps de la Monarchie jusqu’à nos jours par M. Adrien Pascal. Paris, Dutertre, Libraire -Editeur 1861.
Illustré par M. Philippoteaux, E. Charpentier, H. Bellangé, de Moraine, Morel-Fatio, Sorieul, etc.
Adrien Pascal (1815-1863) was a French military historian. He was the head of department of advertising at the Imperial Commission of the Universal Exhibition of 1855.