The American Duchess Guide to 18th Century Beauty by Lauren Stowell & Abby Cox.
Seventeenth and Eighteenth-Century Fashion in Detail by Avril Hart & Susan North.
The History of Modern Fashion: From 1850 to 2010 by Daniel James Cole & Nancy Deihl.
German aristocracy in Spanish style. Second third of the 16th century.
Late Renaissance in the transition to the Counter-Reformation. Baroque period.
The Spanish fashion.
The man is wearing the typical, short, loose-fitting coat, called the Spanish cape, loose over his shoulders. This, a waist-length, quilted jacket with slit sleeves, which was called “goose belly”. A carefully pleated ruff, which is in the form of late no longer attached to the doublet, but is worn as a standalone fashion utensil. At this size, the shape of the collar was produced by wires and stiff linen, silk. High set Spanish breeches (gregüescos in Spanish) was a men’s trousers in the Spanish costume of the 16th century. The trousers got their name from their shape, which looked like two balls. They were heavily padded, roundish, covered half of the thigh or reached to the knees. Tights or silk stockings and usually well padded underpants were worn with the breeches.
The Spanish breeches first spread in Western Europe and later throughout Europe. In Germany they changed into harem pants. In contrast to the harem pants, the Spanish breeches were stuffed (the harem pants hung down). At the Spanish court this type of clothing was worn with slight changes until the 18th century. Incisions were made with coloured linings for decoration. Buckled shoes and stockings. On his head a little beret, a full beard. For this purpose, a long rapier.
The Fabric of Civilization: How Textiles Made the World Paperback – December 7, 2021
by Virginia Postrel (Author)
From Neanderthal string to 3D knitting, an “expansive” global history that highlights “how textiles truly changed the world” (Wall Street Journal)
The woman is in stiff corset bodice with drop waist. The narrow sleeves and collar are also completed by ruffles cuffs. The shoulders are padded bead. The style is worn high. She wears a Stuart hat, decorated with fine lace. The skirt is floor length and a short-term novelty at that time, in the form of the bustle or the later barrel Verdugado (guardians of virtue), bulked. She wears like the man a large ruff.
The cervical collar (also Fraise, millstone ruff) evolved as part of the clothing in the 16th Century from the the small fabric ruffle at the drawstring neck pulled in frilly collar. The ruff was usually emerge from white linen, with a curling iron tubular romped (pipe collar) and partly very expansive (hence millstone collar). Especially under the influence of Spanish fashion the the Frill is an integral part of the clothing for both men and women.
Alexander McQueen: Savage Beauty by Andrew Bolton, Sølve Sundsbø.
Chanel: The Complete Collections of spectacular clothes by Patrick Mauriès.
Tom Ford. 21st century glamour of style and sensuality by Tom Ford, Bridget Foley.